Sunday, 20 September 2015

An Introduction to models in ELT--a somewhat in-depth description Part 2

Part 2
An Introduction to models in ELT—a somewhat in-depth description
The Common European Framework of Reference

From David Newby’s Competence and performance in learning and teaching:
theories and practices in PDF

“The publication of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages in
2001 was a major milestone in foreign language learning and teaching. Its main aim is
to describe[s] in a comprehensive way what language learners have to learn to do in order to use a
language for communication and what knowledge and skills they have to develop so as to be able to
act effectively. The description also covers the cultural context in which language is set. The
Framework also defines levels of proficiency which allow learners’ progress to be measured at each
stage of learning and on a life-long basis. (1)

Communicative language competence (CEFR 2.1.2, p.13)
Linguistic competences:
(subdivided into)
‘lexical, phonological, syntactic knowledge and skills and other dimensions of language as system’ (13).

Lexical competence (CEFR
‘knowledge of, and ability to use, the vocabulary of a language,
consists of lexical elements and grammatical elements’ (110)

Phonological competence (CEFR
‘a knowledge of, and skill in the perception and production of: the sound-units (phonemes) of the language and their realisation in
particular contexts (allophones), etc. (116)

Orthographic competence (CEFR
‘a knowledge of and skill in the perception and production of the
symbols of which written texts are composed’ (117)

Sociolinguistic competences
‘refer to the sociocultural conditions of language use’ (…) ‘rules of
politeness, norms governing behaviour between generations, sexes,
classes and social groups, linguistic codification of certain
fundamental rituals in the functioning of a community’ (13)

Pragmatic competences:
(subdivided into)

Functional competences, (p.123)
‘relating to the communicative function of utterances’ (production
of language functions, speech acts)

Discourse competences
‘the mastery of discourse, cohesion and coherence,
the identification of text types and forms’ (13) ‘relating to the
organising and structuring of texts’ (…) ‘drawing on scenarios or
scripts of interactional exchanges’ (123).

A further category, “semantic competence” which “deals with the learner’s awareness
and control of the organisation of meaning” (115) relates to both lexis and grammar.”

Model 5
Communicative Approach (CA) or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
Hymes’ proposition formed the basis of efforts by linguists and applied linguists to form a new model. The origins of this model are to be found in the emphasis British applied linguists placed on the functional and communicative potential of language. They saw the need to focus in language teaching on communicative proficiency rather than on mere mastery of structures.  In addition to the efforts of those we have seen in the previous subsection, others like Wilkins, Candlin, Christopher Brumfit, Keith Johnson, Van Ek made their contributions. Their ideas were rapidly applied by textbook writers and even governments gave prominence to these ideas nationally and internationally.

Both American and British proponents now see it as an approach (and not a method) that aims to (a) make communicative competence the goal of language teaching and (b) develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication.

CLT has two versions—strong and weak—as distinguished by Howatt, as stated at The weak version, which has become more or less standard practice in the last ten years, stresses the importance of providing learners with opportunities to use their English for communicative purposes and, characteristically, attempts to integrate such activities into a wider program of language teaching.... The 'strong' version of communicative teaching, on the other hand, advances the claim that language is acquired through com­munication, so that it is not merely a question of activating an existing but inert knowledge of the language, but of stimulating the development of the language system itself. If the former could be described as 'learning to use' English, the latter entails 'using English to learn it.' (1984: 279)

CLT has left its doors wide open for a great variety of methods and techniques. There is no single text or authority on it, nor any single model that is universally accepted as authoritative.

Theory of language
“Communicative Language Teaching has a rich, if somewhat eclectic, theoretical base. Some of the characteristics of this communicative view of language follow.
1. Language is a system for expression of meaning.
2. The primary function of language is for interaction and communication.
3. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses.
4. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and struc­tural features, but  
    categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.”
(Richards and Rodgers, 1999:71 Cambridge University Press)

Theory of learning
Language is learnt through communicating activities that are based on tasks that are meaningful to the learner, social context and meaning negotiation. Another theory proposed by Krashen distinguishes between acquisition and learning: Language is acquired through the unconscious development of the target language with real communication activities in the target language, and learning is a conscious process where language knowledge is gained through grammar. Others propose a skill-leaning cognitively and behaviourally. 

CLT gets students to work in small groups, uses authentic texts and learner’s own personal experiences, focusses on the learning process, creates opportunities for authentic communication through cooperation and empathy, through tolerance of errors. Learners listen to audio-video materials, take notes, role play, give oral presentation, undertake projects; they also develop their four skills—listen to directions and complete tasks, express personal responses, take part in simulations, produce mini-dialogues of their own, understand reading material by skimming, scanning, studying, and prepare a write-up by gathering ideas, write a draft and give it a final shape.   

Criticism of CLT
In their “Handbook of Foreign Language Communication and Learning” on page 500, Karlfried Knapp, Barbara Seidlhofer say “(CLT) now has a history of development over several decades and consolidated position, but has also begun to be criticised.” Section 3 entitled “State of the art” from p. 500 to p.510 presents a comprehensive picture of the weaknesses of CLT.

Methods arising from CLT
While the first four models were used to derive methodologies to teach English as another language to L1 learners, this model is flexible enough to permit individual interpretations and variations in the design and the procedure.

Under this general title, several approaches and syllabus designs have been proposed and used.:
1. Learner-centred Approach to Adult ESL students
2. Functional-Notional Syllabus
3. Task-based Language Teaching
4. Procedural Syllabus
5. Content-based Language Teaching
6. Text-based Approach
7. Problem-based Learning
8. Immersion
9. Differentiated Instruction
10. Experiential Learning

1. Learner-centred Approach to Adult ESL students
Learner-centred curriculum “ a collaborative effort between teachers and learners, since learners are closely involved in the decision-making process regarding the content of the curriculum and how it is taught. (Nunan, 1988:2) Learner-centredness and autonomy are rooted in humanism and experiential psychology.

“Though I have set the following steps out sequentially, some of the steps overlap, and can be introduced simultaneously. The is particularly true of Steps 4 - 9, which focus on learning processes, and can be introduced alongside Steps 1 - 3 which are more content oriented.
• Step 1: Make instruction goals clear to learners
• Step 2: Allow learners to create their own goals
•Step 3: Encourage learners to use their second language
             outside the classroom
• Step 4: Raise awareness of learning processes
• Step 5: Help learners identify their own preferred styles and strategies
• Step 6: Encourage learner choice
• Step 7: Allow learners to generate their own tasks
• Step 8: Encourage learners to become teachers
• Step 9: Encourage learners to become researchers
(David Nunan’s Nine steps to learner autonomy in a Symposium 2003)

2. Functional-Notional Syllabus
A new way of organising teaching materials is known as functional-notional syllabus by Van Ek (1973) and Wilkins (2976). It attempts to show what learners need to do with language and what meanings they need to communicate. Its premises are: a. Communication is meaningful behavior. b. Language is seen as personal, interpersonal, directive, referential and imaginative functions and general and topic related notions. Functions are communicative speech acts such as “asking,” “requesting,” “denying,” “arguing,” “describing,” or “requesting.” Notional categories include concepts such as “time” or “location.” Unlike topics and situations, notions and functions express precise categories.

3. Task-based Language Teaching
Task-based language teaching represents one of the several realizations at the levels of syllabus design and methodology. active involvement of the learner is central to the approach, and the learner learns ‘by doing’.

4. Procedural Syllabus
This syllabus was developed in Bangalore, South India by a team led by N. S. Prabhu in 1987. It involved teaching a large class of thirteen-year-old pupils who had been learning English for three years. It consists of a series of tasks sequenced in order of difficulty with learners acquiring language by negotiating these tasks under teacher guidance and with no focus on language form.

The teacher completes with the whole class a series of meaning-focused activities consisting of pre-tasks; next, the students work on similar activities on their own—they perform meaning-focused activities, understanding, conveying or extending meaning. And attention to language forms is only incidental.

5. Content-based Language Teaching
Content-based language teaching is a “content driven” curriculum, i.e., with the selection and sequence of language elements determined by the content with a concurrent learning of a specific content and related language use skills. It claims that students get “two for one”--both content knowledge and increased language proficiency. (Wesche, 1993, pp. 57-58 )

6. Text-based Approach
Feez defines it as what learners do with language and what they need to know how language functions in context. She defines ‘text’ as ‘any stretch of language which is held together cohesively through meaning’. It consists of 1. building the context, 2. modeling and deconstructing the text, 3. joint construction of the text, 4. independent construction of the text and 5. linking to related texts.

7. Problem-based Learning
PBL offers a lot of scope to learners to think, plan, organise ways and means of arriving at solutions to problems simulated to real-life situations. They call upon stored knowledge, gather new knowledge, think independently, share thoughts through brainstorming employing their creative ability, analyse critically available options, decide on a plan of action collaboratively. The teacher only serves as a resource and provides necessary sources and guidelines. Of course the medium is English and learners have to use it at every step in their mind, express it orally, draw up a scheme to solve a problem. They need to do a lot of reading, listening, speaking and put it down in black and white.

PBL enables them to develop their language skills, creative, analytical, critical thinking  and decision-making skills, gain confidence in their abilities, profit in terms of content knowledge and thus get ready to face life in workplace and in general as well.

PBL is a valid, viable, utilitarian alternative to lecture method.

8. Immersion
Language immersion occurs when learners learn their school curriculum in a language other than their mother tongue, say English. Immersion can be total or partial. It can begin at the early, middle, late schooling, and bilingualism is also encouraged.

Immersion as a method took shape when the English-speaking population of the Canadian province of Quebec proposed to their school board that their uni-lingual children would be instructed entirely in French from the first day of school in kindergarten because they felt that whatever French their children were learning would not ensure economic survival. Of course, Variations in immersion were introduced for practical reasons. Gradually other countries followed suit.

Johnson and Swain (1997) summarize eight core features of immersion programs as follows:
1. The L2 is a medium of instruction
2. The immersion curriculum parallels the local L1 curriculum
3. Overt support exists for the L1
4. The program aims for additive bilingualism
5. Exposure to the L2 is largely confined to the classroom
6. Students enter with similar (and limited) levels of L2 proficiency
7. The teachers are bilingual
8. The classroom culture is that of the local L1 community

9. Differentiated Instruction
Differentiation seeks to personalize learning experiences to individual learners or a small group of learners by taking into account children’s current levels of ability, prior knowledge, strengths, weaknesses, preferences, and interests.

"Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction."Tomlinson, C. A. (August, 2000). 

Please visit these web sites to learn more details:
Differentiation 1
Doug Evans
differentiated instruction in the English classroom
3. › ... › Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated Instruction for English Language Learners
By: Karen Ford
8. Understanding ESL Learners: Differentiating Instruction
Alberta Teachers' Association
What Is Differentiated Instruction?
By: Carol Ann Tomlinson
Summary of differentiated learning
In PDF 1. online forum report
Meeting individual needs with young learners
Peter Westwood and Wendy Arnold
ELT Journal Volume 58/4 October 2004 © Oxford University Press 375

10. Experiential Learning
Experiential learning is the process of learning through experience, and is more specifically defined as "learning through reflection on doing".

For more information see
1. Wikipedia
2. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and learning styles model
4. John Dewey, the Modern Father of Experiential Education
5. The Concept of experiential learning and John Dewey’s theory of reflective theory and action
James Neill
Last updated:
26 Jan 2005

Model 6
The bilingual method
This was developed by C.J. Dodson (1967) as a counter to the audiovisual method and the Direct Method.  This method, unlike the other two, makes available the printed text from the  very beginning and presents simultaneously the spoken sentence to allow learners to see the   
shape of individual words. The eight major steps in this method are: (1) imitation, (2) interpretation, (3) substitution and extension, (4) independent speaking of sentences, (5) reverse interpretation (optional), (6) consolidation of question patterns, (7) questions and answers, and (8) normal FL conversation. The aims of bilingual education are fluency and accuracy in L2 in the spoken and written mediums. The method sandwiches meaning in L1 between the repeated L2 sentence and thus avoids meaningless and tedious parroting of the learning input. It uses pictures as aids to recall and practice of the related dialogue sentences, not as conveyors of meaning. Every lesson cycle moves learners from bilingual exercises to production of L2, from guided used to free use of L2. The mother tongue is again used in the oral manipulation of grammatical structures, i.e. in bilingual pattern drills.

Despite convincing research results, this method didn’t engage the attention of ELT experts and practitioners. However, Butzkamm and Caldwell (2009) have taken up Dodson’s seminal ideas and called for a paradigm shift in foreign language teaching. This call was repeated by Hall and Cook in their state-of-the-art article (2012: 299): “The way is open for a major paradigm shift in language teaching and learning”

1. Wikipedia (which provides several other sources)
2. Dodson, C.J.  Language Teaching and the Bilingual Method
3. The Bilingual Method—an overview

Other methods (models 7--11)
While communicative language teaching methodologies kept evolving and being more clearly defined, in the 1970s and 80s a set of alternative approaches and methods emerged.
7. Total Physical Response
8. The Silent way
9. Community Language Learning
10. The Natural Approach
11. Suggestopedia

7. Total Physical Response (TPR)
How was TPR born?
Asher’s observation of high dropout rate of second language students in a traditional programme made him wonder why children found it difficult to learn a second language and experienced consequent stress while they learn their first languages with ease. So he decided to create a way where stress will be absent and learning steps can simulate first language learning. In first language learning, children respond physically to their parents’ instructions and their learning gets reinforced through parents’ continued communication; besides, they do a lot of listening before they begin to communicate verbally.

It’s a formulated combination of three hypotheses. First, that language is learned primarily by listening, second, that language learning must engage the right hemisphere of the brain, and third, that learning language should not involve any stress.

These form the foundation on which TPR is built to teach a second language.   

Children listen and comprehend the target language for sufficient length of time, perform and practise required tasks through physical activities, (triggering memory association and ensuring easy recall)  and only then produce the target language—listen, watch, then imitate.

Children learn core verbs and nouns and grammar inductively.

Children (1) focus on meaning, not on form, (2) learn through drills, role plays using realia, pictures, slides, word charts, (3) absorb and store target language in the subconscious.

Theory of language
Asher views language as a mixture of abstractions and non-abstractions. He believes that learners should be introduced to abstractions in the target language only after they have internalised the code.

Theory of learning
Asher believes that second language learning can be patterned after first language learning. He sees listening as fundamental to language acquisition—listening first, speech next. Learning should start with the activation of right-brain process and then lead to left-brain activity. Learning should be stress-free as it can act as affective filter impeding progress.

1. Wikipedia
2. Two slideshares

8. The Silent Way
How did this come into being?
“While working with UNESCO in Ethiopia, Gattegno, who is a polyglot, developed a new approach to the teaching of the reading and writing of Amharic to native speakers of that language. As the approach evolved it was applied to more and more languages, and in 1962 Words in Colour, a scheme for the teaching of reading and writing to primary school native
speakers of English, appeared. The Silent Way, a methodology for the teaching of foreign languages, was a natural development of this ...” (excerpt from Talking shop A conversation with Caleb Gattegno, inventor of the Silent Way in edited form that was recorded during a lunch break between Rossner and Gattengo, published in ELT Journal Volume 36/4 July 1982, pp.237--241).

“In the last hundred years we have found out that opening education to all means problems which had not been foreseen. So you had reformists everywhere. I learnt all I could about the reformists, but what they were proposing only made a difference in me, not in my students. It didn’t make a difference to the learners’ ‘yield’. So the notion of yield, the economics of
education became my preoccupation. And I found that the greatest yield is to be found in babies. So I tried to learn from babies how they learn. Since they teach themselves, and since I have been self-taught all my life, I realized that my privileged position (which I had seen as a hindrance in my recognition of my own place in the world) as a person who was his own
teacher places me far ahead of myself. I worked with pupils from where they were, as I had worked with myself, and I found that they could do remarkable things. I worked with the blind, the spastic, the learning-disabled, the mentally retarded, the old who had never been to school, the illiterate, and so on, and everywhere I found that I could work on what they were able to do successfully.” (ibid 238--239)

The Silent Way
“The method relies on the teacher’s ability to exploit each student’s previous experiences
with language, his or her imagination and intuition, rather than solely memory or intellect. Devices such as the colour coded pronunciation charts and pointer are used to assist the teacher to develop students’ sensitivities to the new language via its sounds without the traditional techniques of ‘modelling’ pronunciation and correcting errors. Indeed, those
who use the method claim that it is unnecessary for the teacher to intervene verbally at all since students can be guided and student production can be elicited much more effectively by the use of gesture, facial expression, and (on the teacher’s part) silent routines using the materials.” (ibid 237)

The Silent Way belongs to the ‘hypothetical tradition’ where the learner is a principal actor rather than a bench-bound listener.
The Silent way employs rods and the coded-coded pronunciation charts (called Fidel charts) to create memorable images that help recall and thus involve the learner in the learning act.
The Silent Way is also related to a set of premises that we have called "problem-solving approaches to learning" as implied in the words of Benjamin Franklin:
Tell me and I forget,
teach me and I remember,
involve me and I learn.
Theory of language
Gattengo believes that experience is what gives meaning to language and uses a structural approach to the organisation of language to be taught.

Theory of learning
Gattengo sees second language learning as fundamentally different from first language learning. He says successful learning of a second language entirely depends on the learner’s commitment initially in silent awareness and then active trial.

2. thesilentway-1209251102451-phapp01
3. presentation-111130115807-phapp02

9. Community Language Learning
How did this originate?
Charles A. Curran developed this method from his experience as a counsellor to his clients. He found synonymy: the teacher is the counsellor / knower and the learner is the client. Just as the counsellor helps their clients solve their personal problems, the teacher can help their learners gain knowledge in the target language.

The relationship metaphor continues with a humanistic touch where learners expresses their emotions and feelings, with a chance to experience the social atmosphere prevalent in the ‘community’ (learners as a group sitting in a circle unlike apart from each other at a distance demarcated by desks in traditional classroom setting) and with ‘language alternation’ or ‘code switching’ where learners speak in their L1 and learn to say in L2 or the target language with help from the teacher.

Theory of language
CLL sees language as consisting of basic sound and grammatical patterns. It also sees language as a social process and interactional: “Language is people; language is persons in contact; language is persons  in response” (La Forge, P. G. 1983:9. Counseling and Culture in Second Language Acquisition.Oxford: Pergamon.)

Theory of learning
CLL sees learning as both cognitive and affective and ensures learner’s wholesome growth as a person through interaction and exchange of thoughts with warmth and understanding, which Curran terms as ‘consensual validation’. Also, Curran’s acronym SARD standing for security, attention and aggression, retention and reflection and discrimination respectively addresses “not the psycholinguistic and cognitive processes in second language acquisition but rather the personal commitments learners need to make before language acquisition process can operate.” (Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers 1999:118—119)

1. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching CUP 1999 (fifteenth printing)
2. Fara Citra Ghossani et al Teaching Method—Community Language Learning 2012  (check website on CLL

10. The Natural Approach
How did this evolve?
Tracy Terrell’s and other teachers’ experiences of teaching Spanish to elementary- to advanced-level classes and their experiment with several other languages led to crystalisation of this approach. And of course, Terrell joined hands with Stephen Krashen in forming a theoretical base.

The Natural Approach
This begins with providing comprehensible ‘input’ to learners, learners understand what they hear and read. It does not focus on early speaking to avoid ‘filters’ affecting production, enables speaking to emerge gradually and allows  errors in speaking. It facilitates fluency in speaking through listening (reading) as happens in the case of mother tongue. This accords more importance to vocabulary than grammar, which is taken care of through correction in home work.

Theory of language
The essence of language is meaning, not form. The focus is on what we say, not how we say. So vocabulary, not grammar, is the heart of language. 

Theory of learning
This method is based on the distinction between ‘acquisition’ from ‘learning’, the former as a unconscious and the latter as conscious. “Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill.” Stephen Krashen
Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding.”Stephen Krashen

1. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching CUP 1999 (fifteenth printing)
Stephen D. Krashen and Tracy Terrell. The Natural Approach. Prentice Hall Europe 1988

11. Suggestopedia
How did it come into existence?
Suggestopedia was originally developed in the 1970s by the Bulgarian educator Georgi Lozanov.

Professor Doctor Georgi Lozanov, M. D., a Bulgarian psychiatrist – psychotherapist, brain physiologist and an educator, is the creator of the science known as Suggestology and its application in pedagogy – Suggestopedia. 

The expression ‘suggestopedia’ is derived from the words ‘suggestion’ and ‘pedagogy’.
In pedagogy, it operates on the level of the reserves of mind, tapped in a new organisation of the teaching – learning communication.

Suggestopedia (in its new desuggestive development as well) is a science for developing different non-manipulative and non-hypnotic methods for teaching/learning of foreign languages and other subjects for every age-group on the level of reserve (potential, unused) capacities of the brain/mind. A teaching method based on the idea how the  human brain works and how we learn most effectively. It includes a rich sensory learning, a positive expectation of success and the use of a varied range of methods like dramatised texts, music, active participation in songs and games, etc. It focusses on ‘desuggesting’ the learner’s mental limitations  or psychological barriers like fear of failure and inability to learn, and provides a relaxed atmosphere that helps retain learnt material.

It is at least three to five times faster than other methods, ensures easier and deeper learning, nurtures inner freedom, increases motivation for learning, makes  learning joyful and results in psycho-physiological well-being of the learner.

Theory of language
Lozanov does not talk about a theory of language, but he emphasizes
   i. memorization vocabulary pairs and their native language translation
  ii. experiencing language through listening to ‘whole meaningful texts’ for its rhythm and

Theory of learning
Learning occurs through ‘desuggestion’ and ‘suggestion’. The first one delimits memory by removing ‘fear’ and ‘inability to learn’, and the second one provides ‘desired’ memories. This process occurs through ‘authority’, ‘infantilisation’, ‘double-planedness’, ‘intonation’,  ‘rhythm’ and ‘concert pseudo-passiveness’. Reading with proper intonation and rhythm  and dramatic reading in a music environment conducive to relaxing the mind  promotes learning and storing in memory banks.

1. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers Approaches and Methods in Language  
               Teaching CUP 1999 (fifteenth printing)
2.  Tim Bowen  Teaching approaches: what is suggestopedia?
3. suggestopedia-121021181949-phapp02

The Reading model
Reading as a method
Since earliest times, the pendulum has been swinging from reading to speaking. In Grammar-Translation Method, reading was an essential skill; The Direct Method, the Situational Approach in England and the Audio-lingual Method in the States preferred speaking as the starting point. Today, however, reading has somewhat gained its status in the several methods embracing the principles of Communicating Language Teaching.
In the last century, reading approach or reading method was first devised for English learners in India and French or German learners in the United States of America. It has also been advocated in England for pupils of inferior language-learning ability. Dr Michael West proposed what came to be called the Reading method. From his experience of teaching in India, he considered reading the most useful skill to acquire in a foreign language. West prepared a series of readers containing interesting reading material with graded vocabulary. New words were evenly distributed in the lessons to facilitate reading with understanding. The aim of the series was to awaken in the students the desire to read more and more. West believed that plenty of exercises in reading comprehension would make for later progress in speech and writing. Despite its practical appeal, it didn’t survive but introduced into language teaching some important new elements such as ‘grading of texts was possible with vocabulary control that led to rapid reading. In 1930, Coleman proposed reading silently as the first goal of foreign language learning.    
Research in reading
Jacobs, George, M., Renandya, Willy. A., and Bamford, Julian published Reading in a Foreign Language 2000, which summarises investigations into intensive and extensive reading covering a hundred years from the twentieth to early part of the twenty first, clearly indicate interest and concern about using reading as a focus of second language learning.

Pearson’s account traces the history of reading in the twentieth century. Teaching reading in the first thirty years of the twentieth century began with words to letters, words to reading and a potpourri. During this period, teachers and researchers conducted experiments on various aspects of reading—text difficulty and reliability, reading readiness, reading skills, remediation. The next thirty years saw fine tuning of the reading method.  The last thirty years saw a tremendous leap in the interest evinced by linguists, psycholinguists, sociolinguists, philosophers, literary critics and critical theorists in reading as a language learning activity. 

Reading models
There are three models of reading: schema theory, interactive view and metacognitive view. Schema theory refers to the background knowledge that the reader already possesses and that the reader employs to make meaning of a given text. Thus it’s a top-down approach. A bottom-up approach recognises letters, words, phrases, sentences and makes meaning. The interactive view holds that both approaches are employed to derive meaning from a given text using appropriate subskills (strategies): predicting, skimming, scanning, studying, inferencing and self monitoring.

Definition of Reading 
Reading is a language learning process where the reader interacts dynamically with a given text as he/she tries to elicit the meaning and where various kinds of knowledge are being used: linguistic or systemic knowledge (through bottom-up processing) as well as schematic knowledge (through top-down processing). Reading is a mental and complex process which derives meaning through recognising letters as words, words as phrases and sentences and making sense, synthesises and evaluates derived meaning and arrives at conclusions.

Types of reading
Intensive reading and extensive reading are the two types. Intensive reading relates to carefully studying a given content—coursebooks, discipline-related journals and books and accumulating knowledge for professional growth and research purposes. Extensive reading is for curiosity, amusement, enjoyment.
1. Annotated Bibliography of Works on Extensive Reading in a Second Language
    compiled by Jacobs, George, M., Renandya, Willy. A., and Bamford, Julian published in
           Reading in a Foreign Language (2000) :449—522  
          Pearson at

3. Boswell, R. E. (1972). Toward a new eclecticism in modern-language teaching. Foreign    
         Language Annals, 6 (2), 237-246
Sources for the paper as a whole
1. H H Stern Fundamental Concepts of Language Learning
2. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers Approaches and Methods in Language
3. Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing Critical Features From an
    Instructional Design Perspective by Peggy A. Ertmer and Timothy J. Newby published in
    P E R F O R M A N C E I M P R O V E M E N T Q UA R T E R LY, 2 6 ( 2 ) P P. 4 3 – 7 
4. Cognitivsim 100413190630-phpapp01
    Cognitivism 100414120847-phpapp02
    Cognitivism—learning PDF from AEU--asiaeuniversity
5. Nunan, D. (1988). The Learner-Centred Curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University
6. David Nunan’s Nine steps to learner autonomy in a Symposium 2003) PDF
7. Task based Language Teaching by David Nunan   CUP 2004
8. Johnson, R. K.& Swain, M. (1997). Immersion education: International perspectives.  
                                                             Cambridge, UK: Cambridge university Press.

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