Sunday, 21 September 2014

Verb Tenses--Present

Verbs, their Tenses and their Forms

Tense forms bring verbs and time together. They act as bridge between verbs and time. They express the time periods (past, present and future) in relation to actions (‘doing’) and states (‘being’).

We express our thoughts through sentences in ‘active’ or ‘passive’ voice (You’ll learn about ‘voices’ in subsection ‘Transformation of Sentences’ in Part II.) We form ‘statement’ or ‘question’ sentences (You’ll learn about these in Part II). The sentences we use are ‘affirmative’ or ‘negative(You’ll learn about ‘negative sentences’ in Part II). We use ‘regular’ and ‘irregular’ and ‘state’ verbs. We use these verbs in the different forms of past, present and future tenses.

As you’ll see, the tables 4.57—4.80 (present) are complete in themselves and provide you with sample sentences (both affirmative and negative, statement and question and all these in active and passive voice)  for finite verbs(regular, irregular, state) in all the forms of the three tenses. You can use these tables to clear your doubts about forming tenses appropriately.

 Present Tense

Tenses
                        Forms
Past
Present
Future
simple, progressive, perfect, perfect progressive
simple, progressive, perfect, perfect progressive
simple, progressive, perfect, perfect progressive

In the following pages, you’ll find, in 24 tables, four forms of verbs in the past tense:  
    
     4.57—irregular verbs in affirmative statement sentences in active voice
     4.58—regular verbs in affirmative statement sentences in active voice
     4.59—‘State’ verb: Be in affirmative statement sentences in active voice
     4.60—‘State’ verb: Have in affirmative statement sentences in active voice
     4.61—irregular verbs in negative statement sentences in active voice
     4.62—regular verbs in negative statement sentences in active voice
     4.63—‘State’ verb: Be in negative statement sentences in active voice
     4.64—‘State’ verb: Have in negative statement sentences in active voice
     4.65—irregular verbs in question sentences in active voice
     4.66—regular verbs in question sentences in active voice
     4.67—‘State’ verb: Be in question sentences in active voice
     4.68—‘State’ verb: Have in question sentences in active voice
     4.69—irregular verbs in negative question sentences in active voice
     4.70—regular verbs in negative question sentences in active voice
     4.71—‘State’ verb: Be in negative question sentences in active voice
     4.72—‘State’ verb: Have in negative question sentences in active voice  
   4.73—irregular verbs in affirmative statement sentences in passive voice
     4.74—regular verbs in affirmative statement sentences in passive voice
     4.75—irregular verbs in negative statement sentences in passive voice
     4.76—regular verbs in negative statement sentences in passive voice
     4.77—irregular verbs in question sentences in passive voice
     4.78—regular verbs in question sentences in passive voice
     4.79—irregular verbs in negative question sentences in passive voice
     4.80—regular verbs in negative question sentences in passive voice

4.57 Present tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—active voice

Irregular verbs

                                                  present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural        
I speak
We speak
I am speaking
We are speaking
I have spoken
We have spoken
I have been speaking
We have been speaking
second   singular
               plural
You speak
You speak
You are speaking
You are speaking
You have spoken
You have spoken
You have been speaking
You have been speaking
third      singular


              plural
He speaks
She speaks
It speaks  
They speak
He is speaking
She is speaking
It is speaking
They are speaking
He has spoken
She has spoken
It has spoken
They have spoken
He has been speaking
She has been speaking
It has been speaking
They have been speaking


Note: 1. simple present tense           : base verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                   form                                   base verb + ‘s’ or ‘es’¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                 present progressive            : am + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’
                   tense form                          is + -ing to the verb ¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                                              are + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                 present perfect tense          : have + past participle of the verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                   form                                   has + past participle of the verb ¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                 present perfect progressive: have + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you, ‘they’
                   tense form                          has + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’


4.58 present tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—active voice

regular verbs

                                                    present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural        
I talk
We talk
I am talking
We are talking
I have talked
We have talked
I have been talking
We have been talking
 second   singular
               plural
You talk
You talk
You are talking
You are talking
You have talked
You have talked
You have been talking
You have been talking
third      singular


              plural   
He talks
She talks
It talks  
They talk
He is talking
She is talking
It is talking
They are talking
He has talked
She has talked
It has talked
They have talked
He has been talking
She has been talking
It has been talking
They have been talking

1. simple present tense                      : base verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                   form                                   base verb + ‘s’ or ‘es’¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                 present progressive            : am + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’
                   tense form                          is + -ing to the verb ¬ ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it
                                                              are + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                 present perfect tense          : have + past participle of the verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                   form                                   has + past participle of the verb ¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                 present perfect progressive: have + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you, ‘they’
                   tense form                          has + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’

 

 

4.59 present tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—active voice

‘State’ verb: ‘Be’  

                              present tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
I am a teacher.
We are teachers.
I have been a teacher.
We had been teachers.
second singular
             plural
You are a teacher.
You are teachers.
You have been a teacher.
You have been teachers.
third    singular

            plural  
He is a teacher.
She is a teacher.
They are teachers.
He has been a teacher.
She has been a teacher.
They have been teachers.
Note: 1. ‘am’, ‘is’, ‘are’ and ‘been’ are derived from the main verb ‘be’.
            2. Use ‘am’ with ‘I’.     
            3. Use ‘is’ with ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’.
            4. Use ‘are’ with ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’.
            5. Use ‘has been’ as present perfect tense form of ‘am’ and is’.
                Use ‘have been’ as present perfect tense form of ‘are’.
            6. We don’t use ‘be’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

 

4.60 present tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—active voice

‘State’ verb: ‘have’

 
                         present tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
I have a car.
We have cars.
I have had a car.
We have had cars.
second singular
             plural
You have a car.
You have cars.
You have had a car.
You have had cars.
third    singular

            plural  
He has a car.
She has a car.
They have cars.
He has had a car.
She has had a car.
They have had cars.
Note: simple present : Use ‘have’¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                                    Use ‘has’ ¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
          present perfect: Use ‘have’ and ‘have had’ ¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’ 
                                           Use ‘has’ and ‘has had¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
            We don’t use ‘have’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.


4.61 present tense forms in negative statement sentences—active voice
Irregular verbs
                                               present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
First      singular
             plural       
I don’t speak
We don’t speak
I am not speaking
We aren’t speaking
I haven’t spoken
We haven’t spoken
I haven’t been speaking
We haven’t been speaking
second singular
             plural
You don’t speak
You don’t speak
You aren’t speaking
You aren’t speaking
You haven’t spoken
You haven’t spoken
You haven’t been speaking
You haven’t been speaking
third    singular


            plural  
He doesn’t speak
She doesn’t speak
It doesn’t speak  
They don’t speak
He isn’t speaking
She isn’t speaking
It isn’t speaking
They aren’t speaking
He hasn’t spoken
She hasn’t spoken
It hasn’t spoken
They haven’t spoken
He hasn’t been speaking
She hasn’t been speaking
It hasn’t been speaking
They haven’t been speaking

Note: The forms for the meaning of negation:
          1. simple present            : don’t + base verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                 tense form                        doesn’t + base verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
          2. present progressive    : am not + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’,
                 tense form                         isn’t + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                                    aren’t + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. present perfect           :  haven’t + past participle ¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                 tense form                          hasn’t + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
            4. present perfect            :  haven’t + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
              progressive tense form  hasn’t + been + past participle ¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, and ‘it’
To form negative statements in the simple present,
1. you have to break the past tense form of the verb in two:  
    speaks=‘does’ + base verb¬ does + speak.  For the other tenses, the auxiliary verbs: ‘am’, ‘is’,
               ‘are’,  ‘has’, ‘have’ are already available.
2. Attach n’t to the auxiliary verbs, or write not separately after the auxiliary verbs:
             
4.62 present tense forms in negative statement sentences—active voice
regular verbs
                                               present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural       
I don’t talk
We don’t talk
I am not talking
We aren’t talking
I haven’t talked
We haven’t talked
I haven’t been talking
We haven’t been talking
second   singular
               plural
You don’t talk
You don’t talk
You aren’t talking
You aren’t talking
You haven’t talked
You haven’t talked
You haven’t been talking
You haven’t been talking
third      singular


              plural  
He doesn’t talk
She doesn’t talk
It doesn’t talk  
They don’t talk
He isn’t talking
She isn’t talking
It isn’t talking
They aren’t talking
He hasn’t talked
She hasn’t talked
It hasn’t talked
They haven’t talked
He hasn’t been talking
She hasn’t been talking
It hasn’t been talking
They haven’t been talking

Note: The forms for the meaning of negation:
          1. simple present            : don’t + base verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                 tense form                        doesn’t + base verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
          2. present progressive    : am not + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’,
                 tense form                         isn’t + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                                    aren’t + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. present perfect           :  haven’t + past participle ¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                 tense form                          hasn’t + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
            4. present perfect            :  haven’t + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
              progressive tense form  hasn’t + been + past participle ¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, and ‘it’

 

4.63 present tense forms in negative statement sentences—active voice

‘State’ verbs: ‘Be’    

                             present tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
I am not a teacher.
We aren’t  teachers.
I haven’t been a teacher.
We haven’t been teachers.
second singular
             plural
You aren’t a teacher.
You aren’t  teachers.
You haven’t been a teacher.
You haven’t been teachers.
third    singular

            plural  
He isn’t a teacher.
She isn’t a teacher.
They aren’t teachers.
He hasn’t been a teacher.
She hasn’t been a teacher.
They haven’t been teachers.

Note: 1. ‘am’, ‘is’, ‘are’ and ‘been’ are derived from the main verb ‘be’.
            2. Use ‘am’ with ‘I’.     
            3. Use ‘is’ with ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’.
            4. Use ‘are’ with ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’.
            5. Use ‘has been’ as present perfect tense form of ‘am’ and is’.
                Use ‘have been’ as present perfect tense form of ‘are’.
            6. Attach n’t to ‘is’, ‘are’, ‘has’, ‘have’ or write not after ‘is’, ‘are’, ‘have’, ‘has.
                Write not after ‘am’.
            7. We don’t use ‘be’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

4.64 present tense forms in negative statement sentences—active voice

‘State’ verb: ‘Have’
 
                              present tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
I don’t have a car.
We don’t have cars.
I haven’t had a car.
We haven’t had cars.
second singular
             plural
You don’t have a car.
You don’t have cars.
You haven’t had a car.
You haven’t had cars.
third    singular

            plural  
He doesn’t have a car.
She doesn’t have a car.
They don’t have cars.
He hasn’t had a car.
She hasn’t had a car.
They haven’t had cars.

Note: simple present : Use ‘ don’t have’¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                                    Use ‘doesn’t have’ ¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
          present perfect: Use ‘haven’t had’¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’ 
                                           Use ‘hasn’t had¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                           You can also write not after ‘do’, ‘does’, ‘have’, ‘has’.
            We don’t use ‘have’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

4.65 present tense forms in question sentences—active voice
 Irregular verbs

                                                  present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural       
Do I speak?
Do We speak?
Am  I speaking?
Are we speaking?
 Have I spoken?
 Have  we spoken?
Have I been speaking?
Have we been speaking?

second   singular
               plural
Do you speak?
Do you speak?
Are you speaking?
Are you speaking
Have you spoken?
Have you spoken?
Have you been speaking?
Have you been speaking?

third      singular


              plural  
Does  he speak?
Does She speak?
Does  it speak?  
Do  they speak?
Is he speaking?
Is she speaking
Is it speaking?
Are they speaking?
Has he spoken?
Has she spoken?
Has it spoken?
Have they spoken?
Has he been speaking?
Has she been speaking?
Has it been speaking?
Have they been speaking?


Note: Affirmative sentence statements are changed into affirmative question          statements by putting the subject in between the verbs in the following ways:

             1. simple present       : do + subject + base verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’  

                                          does + subject + base verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’

          2. present progressive: am + subject + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’

                                                   is + subject + -ing to the verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’

                                           are + subject + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          3. present perfect         : have + subject + past participle ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
                                                     has + subject + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
            4. present perfect         : have + subject + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
              progressive                 has + subject + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
         
          To form questions in the simple present, you have to break the present tense form of the verb in
            two: speak = ‘do’ + base verb = ‘do speak’ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’.
                 Here, we provide ‘do’ because ‘speak’ is in present tense.
                speaks=does’ + base verb= ‘does speak’ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’.
                    Here, we divide ‘speaks’ into ‘does speak’, replacing ‘s’ with ‘does’.
            For other tenses, the auxiliary verbs: ‘is’, ‘are’, ‘have’ and ‘has’ are already available to form
          Questions.

4.66 present tense forms in question sentences—active voice
regular verbs
                                           present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
             
               plural       
Do I talk?

Do we talk?
Am  I talking?

Are we talking?
Have  I talked?

Have we talked?
Had I been talking?

Had we been talking?
second   singular
              
              plural
Do  you talk?

Do you talk?
Are you talking?

Are you talking?
Have  you talked?

Have you talked?
Have you been talking?

Have you been talking?

third      singular


      
               plural  
Does  he talk?
Does she talk?
Does  it talk?  

Do they talk?
Is he talking?
Is she talking?
Is it talking?

Are they talking?
Has he talked?
Has he talked?
Has it talked?

Have they talked?
Has he been talking?
Has she been talking?
Has it been talking?

Have they been talking?

Note: Affirmative sentence statements are changed into affirmative question          statements by putting the subject in between the verbs in the following ways:
             1. simple present       : do + subject + base verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’ 
                                          does + subject + base verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’          2. present progressive: am + subject + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’
                                           is + subject + -ing to the verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                           are + subject + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          3. present perfect         : have + subject + past participle ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
                                                         has + subject + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
            4. present perfect         : have + subject + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
              progressive                 has + subject + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
       
          To form questions in the simple present, you have to break the present tense form of the verb into
            two: speak = ‘do’ + base verb = ‘do speak’ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’.
                 Here, we provide ‘do’ because ‘speak’ is in present tense.
                speaks=does’ + base verb= ‘does speak’ for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’.
                    Here, we divide ‘speaks’ into ‘does speak’, replacing ‘s’ with ‘does’.
            For other tenses, the auxiliary verbs: ‘is’, ‘are’, ‘have’ and ‘has’ are already available to form
            questions.

4.67 present tense forms in question sentences—active voice

‘State’ verb: ‘Be’
 
                              present tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
Am I a teacher?
Are we teachers?
Have I been a teacher?
Have we been teachers?
second singular
             plural
Are you a teacher?
Are you teachers?
Have you been a teacher?
Have you been teachers?
third    singular

            plural  
Is he a teacher?
Is she a teacher?
Are they teachers?
Has he been a teacher?
Has she been a teacher?
Have they been teachers?

Note: 1. ‘am’, ‘is’, ‘are’ and ‘been’ are derived from the main verb ‘be’.
           2. simple present : am + I……     are + you ……..  Is + he/she/it ………
               present perfect : have + I ….., have + you……, have + they………
                                          has + he/she/it ……….
           3. We don’t use ‘be’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

 4.68 present tense forms in question sentences—active voice

‘State’ verb: ‘have’ 
                              present tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
Do I have a car?
Do we have cars?
Have I had a car?
Have we had cars?
second singular
             plural
Do you have a car?
Do you have cars?
Have you had a car?
Have you had cars?
third    singular

            plural  
Does he have a car?
Does she have a car.
Does they have cars?
Has he had a car?
Has she had a car?
Have they had cars?

Note: simple present: ‘have’ is divided into ‘do’ + ‘have’, ‘has’ into ‘does + have and the subject is put

                                      in between these two (see 4.64).

          present perfect: The subject is put in between ‘have had’ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’.
                                The subject is put in between ‘has had’ for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’.
          The main verb ‘be’ is not used in the progressive tenses.

4.69 present tense forms in negative question sentences—active voice
Irregular verbs

                                                  present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
plural       

Don’t  I speak?
Don’t we speak?

Am I not speaking?
Aren’t we speaking?

Haven’t  I spoken?
Haven’t we spoken?

Haven’t  I been speaking?
Haven’t  we been speaking?
second  
singular


plural

Don’t  you speak?

Don’t  you speak?

Aren’t  you speaking?
Aren’t  you speaking?

Haven’t  you spoken?
Haven’t  you spoken?

Haven’t  you been speaking?
Haven’t  you been speaking?
third      singular



 plural  

Doesn’t  he speak?
Doesn’t  she speak?
Doesn’t it speak?
Don’t they speak?

Isn’t  he speaking?
Isn’t  she speaking

Isn’t  it speaking?
Aren’t they speaking?

Haven’t  he spoken?
Haven’t  she spoken?
Haven’t  it spoken?
Haven’t  they spoken?

Haven’t  he been speaking?
Haven’t  she been speaking?
Haven’t it been speaking?
Haven’t  they been speaking?

Note: Negative sentence statements become negative questions statements by attaching ‘n’t’ to auxiliary

            verbs in the following ways:

          1. simple present       : don’t + subject + base verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’                                                                                       doesn’t + subject + base verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’

        2. present progressive: am + subject + not + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’

                                              isn’t + subject + -ing to the verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’

                                      aren’t + subject + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
        3. present perfect        : haven’t + subject + past participle ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
                                               hasn’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
          4. present perfect        : haven’t + subject + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
              progressive             hasn’t + subject + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’

4.70 present tense forms in negative question sentences—active voice

regular verbs
                                                   present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural       
Don’t  I talk?
Don’t  we talk?
Am I not talking?
Aren’t we talking?
Haven’t  I talked?
Haven’t we talked?
Haven’t  I been talking?
Haven’t  we been talking?
second   singular
               plural
Don’t  you talk?
Don’t you talk?
Aren’t  you talking?
Aren’t you talking?
Haven’t  you talked?
Haven’t you talked?
Haven’t  you been talking?
Haven’t  you been talking?

third      singular


              plural  
Doesn’t  he talk?
Doesn’t  she talk?
Doesn’t  it talk?  
Don’t  they talk?
Isn’t  he talking?
Isn’t  she talking?
Isn’t  it talking?
Aren’t they talking?
Hasn’t  he talked?
Hasn’t she talked?
Hasn’t it talked?
Haven’t  they talked?
Hasn’t  he been talking?
Hasn’t  she been talking?
Hasn‘t  it been talking?
Haven’t they been talking?

Note: Negative sentence statements become negative questions statements by attaching ‘n’t’ to auxiliary

            verbs in the following ways:

          1. simple present       : don’t + subject + base verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’  

                                     doesn’t + subject + base verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’

        2. present progressive: am + subject + not + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’

                                              isn’t + subject + -ing to the verb¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’

                                      aren’t + subject + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
        3. present perfect       : haven’t + subject + past participle ¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
                                             hasn’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
          4. present perfect       : haven’t + subject + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
              progressive            hasn’t + subject + been + -ing to the verb¬ for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
         
4.71 present tense forms in negative question sentences—active voice

‘State’ verb: ‘Be
 
                              present tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
Am I not a teacher?
Aren’t we teachers?
Haven’t I been a teacher?
Haven’t we been teachers?
second singular
             plural
Aren’t you a teacher?
Aren’t you teachers?
Haven’t you been a teacher?
Haven’t you been teachers?
third    singular

            plural  
Isn’t he a teacher?
Isn’t she a teacher?
Aren’t they teachers?
Hasn’t he been a teacher?
Hasn’t she been a teacher?
Haven’t they been teachers?

Note: 1. ‘am’, ‘are’ and ‘been’ are derived from the main verb ‘be’.
            2. Use ‘am’ before ‘I’
                Use ‘is’  before ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’.
                Use ‘are’ before ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’.
                Use subject between ‘have’ and ‘been’ for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’ .
                Use subject between ‘has’ and ‘been’ for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’. 
                Place ‘not’ after ‘I’.
                Attach ‘n’t’ to ‘is’, ‘are’, ‘have’, ‘has’.
            3. We don’t use ‘be’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

4.72 present tense forms in negative question sentences—active voice

‘State’ verb: ‘have’

 
                              present tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
Don’t I have a car?
Don’t we have cars?
Haven’t I had a car?
Haven’t we had cars?
second singular
             plural
Don’t you have a car?
Don’t you have cars?
Haven’t you had a car?
Haven’t you had cars?
third    singular

            plural  
Doesn’t he have a car?
Doesn’t she have a car.
Don’t they have cars?
Hasn’t he had a car?
Hasn’t she had a car?
Haven’t they had cars?

Note: simple present: ‘have’ is divided into ‘do’ + ‘have’, ‘has’ into ‘does + have’ and the subject is put

                                      in between these two (see 4.64).

          present perfect: The subject is put in between ‘have had’ for ‘I’, ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’.
                                The subject is put in between ‘has had’ for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’.
          Attach ‘n’t’ to ‘do’, ‘does’, ‘have’, ‘has’.
          The main verb ‘be’ is not used in the progressive tenses.
See 4.65 and 4.74 to know how we change statements into questions.
_______________________________________________________________________

You’ve seen how we use the present tense forms of irregular and regular verbs in affirmative, negative and question statements in active voice. Now you’ll see how we use the past tense forms of irregular and regular verbs in affirmative, negative and question statements in passive voice.

Don’t worry now about what active and passive voices are. You’ll see what they are and to what purpose they are used in the section on ‘conversion’ in Par 3.  Now, just learn the structure of passive voice.

4.73 present tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—passive voice
 Irregular verbs

                                                        present tense forms
   person
Simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive    
first        singular
               plural       
I am hit
We are hit
I’m being hit
We’re being hit
I have been hit
We have been hit
I have been being hit
       --------------
second   singular                         
              plural
You are hit
You are hit
You’re being hit
You’re being hit
You have been hit
You have been hit
        -------------  
        ------------
third     singular


             plural  
He is hit
She is hit
It is hit
They are hit
He’s being hit
She’s being hit
It’s being hit
They’re being hit
He has been hit
She has been hit
It has been hit
They have been hit
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
   
Note: This table shows you how to use present tense forms of irregular verbs in passive voice:                        
          simple present       : auxiliary verb + past participle (p.p.) of verb
                                                          1                      2                                                      
                                                 I am hit.    He is hit.
                                                     1  2           1  2         
          present progressive: auxiliary verbbeing + past participle
                                                            1                    2                3
                                                 I am being hit.      He is being hit.   
                                                   1      2     3              1    2    3
          present perfect       : auxiliary verbbeen + past participle
                                                            1                    2                3
                                                 I have been hit.      He has been hit
                                                         1      2     3               1     2     3
          present perfect progressive in passive voice is most rare (almost never used) in speech and
            writing.

4.74 present tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—passive voice

regular verbs

                                                    present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
   perfect progressive
first   singular
             
          plural       
I am watched

We are watched
I am being watched

We are being watched
I have been watched

We have been watched
I have been being watched
         ------------
second singular    
plural

You are watched
You are watched

You are being watched
You are being watched

You have been watched
You have been watched
      
          ------------      
          -----------
third   singular


            plural                         
He is watched
She is watched
It is watched  
They are watched
He is being watched
She is being watched
It is being watched
They are being watched
He has been watched
She has been watched
It has been watched
They have been watched
          -----------
          -----------
          ----------
          ----------

Note: This table shows you how to use present tense forms of irregular verbs in passive
          voice:                        
          simple present       :   auxiliary verb + past participle (p.p.) of  verb
                                                      1                      2                                                     
                                                  I am watched.     He is watched.
                                                     1       2                 1      2
          present progressive: auxiliary verbbeing + past participle
                                                   1                    2                3
                                                  I am being watched.      He is being watched.
                                                    1      2        3                    1    2        3
          present perfect       : auxiliary verb +  been + past participle
                                                    1                    2                3
                                                  I have been watched.      He has been watched.
                                                          1      2        3                     1      2        3
          present perfect progressive in passive voice is most rare (almost never used) in speech and
            writing.

4.75 present tense forms in negative statement sentences—passive voice 
Irregular verbs 
                                                        present tense forms
   person
Simple
  progressive
perfect
  perfect progressive    
first        singular
               plural       
I am not  hit
We aren’t hit
I am not being hit
We aren’t being hit
I haven’t been hit
We haven’t been hit
I haven’t been being hit
       --------------
second   singular                         
              plural
You aren’t hit
You aren’t hit
You aren’t being hit
You aren’t being hit
You haven’t been hit
You haven’t been hit
        -------------  
        ------------
third     singular


             plural  
He isn’t hit
She isn’t hit
It isn’t hit
They aren’t hit
He isn’t being hit
She isn’t being hit
It isn’t being hit
They aren’t being hit
He hasn’t been hit
She hasn’t been hit
It hasn’t been hit
They haven’t been hit
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
   
Note: The forms for the meaning of negation:
          1. simple present       : am not + past participle ¬ for ‘I’
                                                        isn’t + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                                        aren’t + past participle¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          2. present progressive: am not + being + past participle ¬ for ‘I’
                                                         isn’t + being + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                               aren’t + being + past participle¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. present perfect       : haven’t + been + past participle ¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
                                                        hasn’t + been + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
            4. present perfect progressive in passive voice is most rare (almost never used) in speech and
                 writing.

4.76 present tense forms in negative statement sentences—passive voice

regular verbs

                                                    present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
   perfect progressive
first     singular             
plural          
       

I am not watched
We aren’t watched

I am not being watched
We aren’t being watched

I haven’t been watched
We haven’t been watched

I haven’t been being watched         
         ------------
second  singular             
            
plural               

You aren’t watched 
You aren’t watched

You aren’t being watched 
You aren’t being watched

You haven’t been watched 
You haven’t been watched

        ------------      

          -----------
third   singular


            
          

plural
  

He isn’t watched

She isn’t watched

It isn’t watched 

They aren’t watched

He isn’t being watched

She isn’t being watched

It isn’t being watched

They aren’t being watched

He hasn’t been watched
She hasn’t been watched
It hasn’t been watched

They haven’t been watched
        
          -----------
        
           -----------
         
            ----------
         
             ----------

Note: The forms for the meaning of negation:
          1. simple present: am not + past participle ¬ for ‘I’,  isn’t + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                 aren’t + past participle¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
          2. present progressive: am not + being + past participle ¬ for ‘I’
                                               isn’t + being + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                       aren’t + being + past participle¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. present perfect: haven’t + been + past participle ¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
                                         hasn’t + been + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
            4. present perfect progressive in passive voice is most rare (almost never used) in speech and writing.

 4.77 present tense forms in question sentences—passive voice

irregular verbs

                                                        present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural       
Am I hit?
Are we hit?
Am I being  hit?
Are we being hit?
Have  I been hit?
Have  we been hit?
Have I been being hit?
       --------------
second   singular                         
              plural
Are you hit?
Are you hit?
Are  you being hit?
Are  you being hit?
Have  you been hit?
Have you been hit?
        -------------  
        ------------
third     singular


             plural  
Is he hit?
Is she hit?
Is it hit?  
Are they hit?
Is he being hit?
Is  she being hit?
Is  it being hit?
Are they being hit?
Has he been hit?
Has  she been hit?
Has  it been hit?
Have  they been hit?
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
   
Note: The subject is placed in between auxiliary (helping) verb and the past participle:

          1. simple present           : am + subject + past participle¬for ‘I’
                                                  is + subject + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                          are + subject + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
          2. present progressive  :  am + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘I’
                                                   is + subject + being + past participle¬for  ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                                   are + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
          3. present perfect          : have + subject + been + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you,they’
                                                  has + subject + been + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’    
          4. present progressive
                perfect                       : This is most rare (almost never used) in speech or writing.


4.78 present tense forms in question statements—passive voice

regular verbs

                                                    present tense forms
   Person
simple
  progressive
perfect
 perfect progressive
first     singular
             
            plural       
Am I watched?

Are  we watched?
Am I being watched?

Are we being watched?
Have I been watched?

Have we been watched?
   Have I been being    
   watched?

         ------------
second  singular            
              plural
             
Are you watched?
Are you watched?
Are you being watched?
Are you being watched?
Have you been watched?
Have you been watched?
         ------------    
          ------------
third   singular

          
            plural  
Is he watched?
Is she watched?
Is it watched?  
Are they watched?
Is he being watched?
Is she being watched?
Is it being watched?
Are they being watched?
Has he been watched?
Has she been watched?
Has it been watched?
Have they been watched?
          -----------
          -----------     
           ----------
          ----------

Note: The subject is placed in between auxiliary (helping) verb and the past participle:

          1. simple present           : am + subject + past participle¬for ‘I’
                                                  is + subject + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                          are + subject + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
          2. present progressive  :  am + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘I’
                                                   is + subject + being + past participle¬for  ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                                   are + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
          3. present perfect          : have + subject + been + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you,they’
                                                  has + subject + been + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’    
          4. present progressive
                perfect                       : This is rarely used in speech or writing.


4.79 present tense forms in negative question sentences—active voice
Irregular verbs

                                                        present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular            
           
               plural       
Am I not hit?

Aren’t we hit?
Am I not being  hit?

Aren’t we being hit?
Haven’t I been hit?

Haven’t we been hit?
Haven’t I been being hit?   
        --------------
second   singular                         
            
               plural
Aren’t you hit?
Aren’t you hit?
Aren’t you being hit?
Aren’t you being hit?
Haven’t you been hit?
Haven’t you been hit?
        -------------      
         ------------
third     singular


             plural  
Isn’t he hit?
Isn’t she hit?
Isn’t it hit?  
Aren’t they hit?
Isn’t he being hit?
Isn’t she being hit?
Isn’t it being hit?
Aren’t they being hit?
Hasn’t he been hit?
Hasn’t she been hit?
Hasn’t it been hit?
Haven’t they been hit?
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
   
Note: The subject is placed in between auxiliary (helping) verb and the past participle:

            1. simple present           : am + subject + not + past participle¬for ‘I’
                                              isn’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                           aren’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            2. present progressive  : am + subject +not + being + past participle¬for ‘I’
                                                    isn’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                                    aren’t + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            3. present perfect          : haven’t + subject + been + past participle¬for‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’ 
                                                    hasn’t + subject +been + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’ 
            4. present  perfect progressive is rarely used in speech or writing.



4.80 present tense forms in negative question sentences—passive voice

regular verbs

                                                    present tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
   perfect progressive
first  singular
             
  
       plural       
Am I not watched?

Aren’t we watched?
Am I not being watched?

Aren’t we being watched?
Haven’t I been watched?

Haven’t we been watched?
Haven’t I been being watched?

         ------------
second  singular
             
            
plural

Aren’t you
watched?  

Aren’t you 
watched?

Aren’t you being watched?

Aren’t you being watched?

Haven’t you been watched?

Haven’t you been watched?
      
         ------------

      

          -----------
third   singular


            
          



plural  

Isn’t he watched?


Isn’t she watched?

Isn’t it watched?  

Aren’t they  watched?

Isn’t he being watched?

Isn’t she being watched?

Isn’t it being watched?

Are they being watched?

Hasn’t he been watched?

Hasn’t she been watched?

Hasn’t it been watched?
Haven’t they been watched?
        
           -----------
     

           -----------
         
   
            ----------
    
             ----------

Note: The subject is placed in between auxiliary (helping) verb and the past participle:
            1. simple present: am + subject + not + past participle¬for ‘I’
                                          isn’t + subject + past participle¬for  ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                   aren’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            2. present              am + subject + not +being + past participle¬for ‘I’
                progressive     : isn’t + subject + being + past participle ¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                          aren’t + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            3. present perfect: haven’t + subject + been + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
                                          hasn’t + subject + been + past participle¬for ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’      
            4. present perfect progressive: This is rarely used in speech or writing.

___________________________________________________________________________