Friday, 22 August 2014

Vocabulary Exercises



Here you’ll find several types of exercises to test vocabulary.

1. Analogy
This helps us understand some kind of relationship between a pair of words.

Let’s look at a few examples:
1. hypothesis  : proof
    a. statement: expression
    b. promise  : fulfilment
    c. urging     : need
    d. execution: intention
‘hypothesis’ is at the concept level and ‘proof’ is at the concrete level. So ‘b’ is the choice

2. vigilant : danger
    a. thrifty        : indigence*
    b. compulsive: thoroughness
    c. arbitrary    : justice
    d. persevering: innocence
If you are ‘vigilant’ you can avoid danger. (a) if you are thrifty (=economical) you can avoid indigence(=being poor)

3. incline : precipice
   a. alteration    : mutation
   b. selfishness  : greed
   c. wilderness  : jungle
   d. partisan      : zealot
‘vertical’ is the common factor in the head pair. Only (a) has a common factor: change

4. perspicacious* : insight
    a. authority  : despotism
    b. audacious: hearing
    c. torpid       : activity
    d. zealous     : enthusiastic
(a) all who have authority are not despots. (b) there’s no connection (c) contains antonyms
(d) contains synonyms and is the choice as the head pair is synonymous.

5. chevron* : badge
    a. caisson*  : cart
    b. calcium  : bone
    c. wax        : candle
    d. oration   : euology
chevron=badge with a V shape    The answer is (a) cassion=ammunition wagon

6. hack   : carve
    a. grind   : polish
    b. snip    : mince
    c. hew     : fell
    d. gouge*: engrave
‘c’ is the answer

Note: GRE is a test aspirants wishing to seek admission to an MS programme in the US need
          to get through.

Exercise 1
Read carefully each lead pair and the choices that follow them. Choose a pair that is an analogy to each lead pair.
Note: It’s good to arrive at the right choice by elimination process because you may not know every expression in the choices.


1. furniture: table
    a. plant: tree              b. vehicle: ship
    c. book : knowledge    d. bravery : medal

2. wood : mahogany
    a. house : villa            b. sonnet : poem
    c. bottle : container     d. sleep : bed

3. writer : novelist
    a. gold : bangle           b. seed : plant
    c. sword : weapon       d. bird : woodpecker

4. Edison : electric bulb
    a. pencillin       : Alexander Fleming
    b. Rontgen       : X-ray
    c. Duryodhana  : Mahabharatha
    d. Mahatma Gandhi : India

5. miniature  : enlargement
    a. commence : begin
    b. zenith        : apex
    c. alpha         : omega
    d. praise        : flatter

6. ingenious  : skillful
    a. ferocious    : kind
    b. loquacious  : dumb
    c. ingenuous  : frank
    d. extravagant: miserly

7. witness : courtroom
    a. inspector : jail
    b. teacher    : education
    c. doctor      : operation
    d. guard      : train

8. fruit  : orange
    a. house   : kitchen
    b. college : playground
    c. table     : furniture
    d. crime    : murder

9. nose  : smell
    a. tongue   : taste
    b. stomach : digest
    c. bed         : sleep
    d. leg         : crawl

10. train  : coal
      a. car     : wheels
      b. teacher: chalk
      c. man    : brain
      d. TV      : news   




11. bread  : flour
      a. TV   : gadget
      b. book: paper
      c. wall  : cement
      d. river : rain

12. light  : darkness
      a. medicine   : cure
      b. knowledge: ignorance
      c. food           : energy
      d. friend        : enemy

13. plant  : leaf
     a. calendar: date
     b. camera  : picture
     c. paper     : news
     d. body      : arm

14. sock  : foot
      a. glove  : arm
      b. sweater: cold
      c. cloth   : body
      d. lip       : mouth

15. knife : fork
      a. cup      : saucer
      b. bread  : butter
      c. fire      : warmth
      d. kitchen: cooking

16. fire  : warmth
      a. rain   : cloud
      b. cold  : numbness
      c. earth  : river
      d. chair  : comfort

17. prune  : hedge
      a. trim   : hair
      b. cut    : cake
      c. reap  : crop
      d. shave: moustache

18. euology : praise
      a. comedy : laugh
      b. epic       : contempt
      c. tirade     : awe
      d. elegy     : lament


19. satire  : ridicules
      a. hyperbole  : exaggerate
      b. comedy     : laugh
      c. camera      : click
      d. hoe           : dig

20. start   : finish
      a. begin     : stop
      b. born       : die
      c. produce : destroy  
      d. bath       : dress

21. open  : close
      a. smile  : weep
      b. sow    : harvest
      c. grow  : mature
      d. talk    : quiet

22. food   : hunger
      a. police   : criminal
      b. teacher : knowledge
      c. water   : thirst
      d. lie down: tiredness

23. bed  : rest
      a. book   : print
      b. lamp  : read
      c. house  : enjoy
      d. dress   : wear

24. admire  : idolize
      a. weak     : strength
      b. dislike   : hate
      c. mumble : yell
      d. pray       : worship

25. adamant  : dogmatic
      a. weak   : firm
      b. love    : hate
      c. happy  : ecstatic
      d. sour    : bitter

26. attachment : love
      a. frugal     : parsimony
      b. ordinary : magnificence
      c. trite        : cliché
      d. shout      : thunder  
  



27. warm : heat
      a. jump   : fly
      b. purloin*: pilfer
      c. firm     : dogmatic
      d. wind   : tornado

28. sun  : heat
      a. jump           : catch
      b. generosity : cautious
      c. glass          : break
      d. slap           : pain

29. drug  : cure
      a. murder       : jail
      b. eat             : sleep
      c. generosity : gratitude
      d. blabber      : blunder

30. cloud  : rain
      a. mischief    : jail term
      b. chair         : sit
      c. water        : grow
      d. prevaricate: quibble

31. throw  : break
      a. drowsiness : eat
      b. muffle        : sound
      c. smatter*     : superficial
      d. ego             : vanity

32. copyright : author
      a. licence    : driver
      b. passport  : citizen
      c. patent     : inventor
      d. gavel     : chairperson

33. code   : meaning
      a. safe          : valuables
      b. confidence: secret
      c. camouflage: location
      d. briefcase    : documents

34. diary  : person
      a. log               : ship
      b. journal        : science
      c. calendar      : year
      d. passbook    : deposit           

Exercise 2 analogy continued

35. scene : play                                42. superimpose : above 
      a. medley*   : song                           a. permeate   : beside
      b. sketch      : painting                      b. focus        : around
      c. index        : book                           c. insert        : between
      d. pirouette* : ballet                         d. fuse          : behind

36. ratiocination* : thinking              43. courage : rashness
      a. supposition : theorising                  a. generosity   : prodigality
      b. emulation   : idolizing                    b. temperance : modesty
      c. jubilation   : pleasing                      c. honour        : humility
      d. articulation : talking                       d. compassion : contempt

 37. adulteration : purity                     44. cow : herd
       a. modify     : essence                        a. grass  : green
       b. exonerate : crime                           b. film star : galaxy
       c. ascertain  : validity                         c. bald   : hair
       d. filch         : earn                              d. horse  : breed

38. itinerary : trip                                 45. bird :ornithology
      a. resume   : job                                    a. zoology : animals
      b. portfolio : document                        b. stars       : galaxy
      c. legend    : map                                  c. archaeology : antiquity
      d. syllabus  : course                              d. plant       : botany

39. awl*  : pierce                                   46. tree : trunk
      a. lathe    : penetrate                               a. pen   : ink
      b. drill     : flatten                                   b. car    : chassis
      c. pestle   : mash                                    c. cabin : log
      d. sickle   : cut                                       d. arm   : body

40. surgeon : dexterity                            47. people : house
      a. engineer    : clarity                              a. criminal : jail
      b. sailor        : navigation                        b. bird        : nest
      c. industrialist: capital                             c. monkey : tree
      d. acrobat       : agility                             d. lion        : zoo

41. credulous : dupe                                 48. cycle   : pedal
      a. insensitive      : boor                             a. drive : accelerator
      b. argumentative : lawyer                        b. eat     : plate
      c. naive               : cheat                           c. sleep  : bed
      d. extravagant     : miser                          d. write  : paper
   


49. night : day                                          50. running : breathlessness                                                                                   
     a. teacher : learner                                     a. news      : shock
     b. loss      : gain                                         b. medicine: cure
     c. boy      : girl                                           c. joke       : laughter
     d. head     : tail                                           d. tension  : headache

51. eye  : sight                                          52. head   : think
      a. tongue : taste                                        a. tongue : lash
      b. lips      : smile                                       b. broom : sweep
      c. hand    : eat                                           c. chess   : check
      d. feet     : walk                                        d. teeth    : brush

53. chalk : blackboard                               54. pedestrian : pavement
      a. bread     : jam                                         a. passengers : train
      b. paste     : brush                                       b. vehicle      : lane
      c. ball        : bat                                          c. teacher       : classroom
      d. mattress : cot                                          d. writer        : book

55. profit  : loss                                          56. dime  : dollar
      a. big     : small                                           a. lapse           : blunder
      b. simple : complex                                    b. love            : hate
      c. easy    : difficult                                      c. generosity  : caution
­­ d. close   : open                                           d. camera       : picture
(find inappropriately placed pair)

57. dawdle  : race                                        58. decade  : century
      a. commence : begin                                   a. shout     : thunder
      b. fear            : terror                                   b. economy: largesse
      c. blabber      : blunder                                c. pint        : gallon
      d. squirm      : wriggle                                 d. firm      : dogmatic

59. saunter : stride                                       60. charge : fleece
      a. admire  : idolize                                      a. news       : exaggerate
      b. suicide  : murder                                     b. drizzling : raining
      c. anger    : roar                                           c. relax       : enjoy
      d. doubt   : suspect                                      d. breeze     : gale

61. furniture : table                                      62. wood  : mahogany
      a. plant    : tree                                             a. house   : villa
      b. vehicle : ship                                            b. sonnet  : poem
      c. book    : knowledge                                  c. bottle   : container
      d. bravery : medal                                        d. sleep    : bed

63. writer : novelist
      a. gold    : bangle
      b. seed    : plant
      c. bird     : woodpecker
      d. sword : weapon                   



2. Affixes

Exercise 3
In the following sentences or paragraphs, you’ll find one blank or more followed by a word in brackets. Fill in each blank with the word formed by adding an appropriate prefix, suffix or both to the word given in brackets:
       
1. Don’t depend on him; he’s very -------------------------- . [rely]

2. He’s been ----------------- [special] interested in the welfare of Tamil medium students.

3. Did you read the ------------------------[editor] in yesterday’s Hindu?

4. There’s been a -------------------------[consider] ----------------------[reduce] in the
     ----------------------------[deploy] of the army in the Kargil area.

5. I respect your ------------------------[friend].

6. Our -------------------[reduce] sales are on from tomorrow.

7. We provide quality -----------------------------[treat] to our patients.

8. That’s a ----------------------[sense] -----------------------[suggest] from you. Thank you.

9. I’ve --------------------------[place] my wallet; I can’t find it.

10.When you place a heavy object in a bucket full of water, the water gets ----------------
      [place].
11. To everyone’s --------------------[amaze] the ---------------------[magic] changed
       himself into a bird.
12. If you give me a -----------------------------[recommend] letter, it’ll -----------------              
      [able] me to get a job.
13. Questionnaires are used as part of research for ---------------------------[collect] of
      data.
14. The ------------------[defend] -----------------[law] objected to certain expressions
     
      used by the public ------------------------[prosecute] .

15. Customers are warned that on -----------------------------[pay] of ------------------------

      [electric] bills within stipulated time, power will be ----------------------------[connect].

16. Even today, ----------------------------[literacy] is very high in villages. 

17. I could see ------------------------------[satisfy] in her face.

18. I shouted at you, yes, but that’s no ------------------------------[justify] for having me
      beaten up.
19. The mobile and the internet have --------------------------------[revolution] our

      ----------------------------------- [communicate] channels.

20. We won’t accept your ------------------ [deny].

21. Your -------------------------[accuse] is totally false.

22. I’m afraid that our --------------------------[develop] programmes are ----------------------
      [adequate]
23. He’s always --------------------------[treat] me. I hate him.

24. Though these -------------------------[refuge] are in need of ------------------------------
      
       [rehabilitate], the --------------------------[govern] is ----------------------[ignore]
       this problem.
25. You can’t fight alone against ----------------------------[corrupt]. If you persist, your

       life will be ----------------[misery].

26. In most --------------------------------[organise], newsletters are ---------------------

      [circulate] to pass on local news to their ------------------------[employ].

27. Is the diameter of the -------------------[wood] posts of the main structure 100 mm?

28. Next, several ------------------------[suggest] or ------------------------------[recommend] 
    
      are made to ----------------[sure] -------------------------[correct] action. For instance,

      ------------------[work] may undergo -----------------------[retrain]. ----------------------

      [supervise] may need to be stepped up. New -----------------------[equip] may be
  
      necessary. Or the ------------------------------[operation] processes may need -------------

      [revise]. Further, it may be necessary or -------------------------[desire] to take another

      look at standards set for output or quality. Even ------------------------------[manage]

     goals may require --------------------------[modify] or --------------------------[transform].

29. It is imperative that we -------------------------[careful] utilise our -----------------------

      [renew] resources of soil, plant and animal life to sustain our economic -----------------

      [develop]. Over- -----------------------[exploit] of these is reflected in soil ----------------

      [erode], ----------------------[silt], floods and rapid ---------------------[destroy] of forest,

      floral and wild life resources. The -------------------------[deplete] of these resources

      often tends to be -----------------------[reversible] and since the bulk of our --------------

      [populate] depends on these natural resources to meet their basic needs, ----------------
     
      [particular] of fuel, fodder and -------------------[house] material, it has meant a

      -------------------------------------[deteriorate] in their quality of life.

30. The following are some of the common methods of ------------------------[assess].

      -------------------[usual], an ---------------------------[evaluate] uses all three

      components to gather -----------------------[inform] about a child.
_______________________________________________________________________
Exercise 4
From the following words, write down those that have been formed or derived with the help of prefixes, suffixes or both and underline the affixes:
e.g. unreliable, bureaucracy, immeasurable, joyous, demotivate, disengage

abnormal, ably, absolutely, accessible, accuracy, adage, package, amoral, afoot,
alacrity, enormity, dictionary, military, endure, endanger, enemy, enable, mission,
permission, misplace, discussion, disappear, generous, uniform, immature, immaculate,
emblem, empower, illicit, illegible, declare, decompose, mistrust, distrust, ill-treat,
mistreat, mistake, mistime, irreversible, inappropriate, misappropriate, incredulous,
incredible, visible, spacious, circular, regular, religion, digestion, counsellor, speechless,
reproduction, deepen, demerit, anticipate, antibacterial, counterpose, countersign,
dismissal, deactivation, creator, motor, rebellion, creamy, barmy, shaky

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 5
From the prefixes given below attach the right one for each of the following words:
        non, dis, de, mis, ir/im/in/il, un, counter, mal, sub, under,
[For some words, more than one prefix can be attached.]

------regulate      ------unity         -----appear       -------convincing     -------measure

-----classify        ------ability       -----responsible     ------nutrition     -----human

-----editor           -----able           -----efficient       ------stop    ------Whites   ----considerate 

-----populate      -----cover          -----material       -----logical       ------cooked 

-----member       -------weight     -----religious       -----marine      ------pleased
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 6
Rewrite the following words using appropriate suffixes given below.
     less, acy/cy, age, al, ity, ness, y, [i]fy, ise/ize, ment, hood, able, ful, ive,   
     ly, en, ous, ation, er, or, ic
 [For some words, more than one suffix can be attached.] 

brother, speech, admire, bear, reflect, nation, rely, silk, colour, happy, neighbour,

_______________________________________________________________________
despot, dictate, announce, audit, design, secret, mile, malaria, regular, specific,

________________________________________________________________________


rest, examine, hard, intense, count, amplify, deny, read, success, soft

________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________


Exercise 7
Correct the spelling of the following words where necessary:
budgetery    captor    reportor    arguement   judgment   repeatition    advertisment

________________________________________________________________________
republican   rebellian   calculater  regulator  unforgetable   convertion  attackor   advisor

________________________________________________________________________
administeration   perfarmance   revealation    indicater    invension   revision  jugglar

________________________________________________________________________
compelsion   eradication   sensasion    probationor    perversion   prevension    sensation

________________________________________________________________________
dependant    dependent    defendant   capter   catchible  saleable  removable reversible

________________________________________________________________________
educater      distributer    miner   racer  racist   teacher  sprintor   decorator  admissible

________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 8

From each of the following passages, write down the words formed with affixes:
1.

The key to effective communication
This is the essential practical guide for anyone who wants to improve their written and spoken language skills. It provides advice, tips, and ideas to help you communicate better in a wide range of everyday situations. Real-life examples, an invaluable glossary, and You Try boxes provide clear and accessible guidance.[ “ blurb” of Oxford guide to writing and speaking]


……………………..        ……………………………….    …………………… 

---------------------------         ---------------------------------


2.

Using good English
Use the extensive coverage of the technicalities of the English language to improve your understanding of grammar, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, and speech.


-----------------------    ------------------------- ----------------------------------

----------------------------  --------------------------------   ------------------------------------

3.    

The first paragraph is about using the overdraft facility and the second concerns overdraft protection, an insurance protecting the user against being unable to repay the overdraft in the event of illness or unemployment


3.    ----------------------      --------------------

-----------------------------   ----------------------    --------------------     -------------------------- 

-------------------------------                                    ------------------     ----------------------------


4.

These principles underpinning effective performance appraisal have wider relevance than simply improvements in individual performance. They are also concerned with the development of a participative organizational culture.



-----------------------------      ---------------------------    --------------------------- 

----------------------------   --------------------   -------------------------------

------------------------------   ------------------------------------       

5.

Ayurveda is the most ancient form of medicine in the world, and the forerunner of all other great systems of medicine. It literally means ‘knowledge of life’; its guiding principles are believed to have been handed down from the Hindu gods to the great seers. The written texts of Ayurveda date back 3,500 years and the incredibly complex and advanced concepts that embody them still form the basis of much Indian medicine today.



-----------------------------       --------------------------    ----------------------

-----------------------------    --------------------------    ---------------------------    

6.

Brinkerhoff  looked up. It was Midge Milken, Fontaine’s internal security analyst. She was sixty, slightly heavy, and much to the puzzlement of Brinkerhoff, quite appealing. An ex-wife three times over, Midge prowled the six-room directorial suite with a saucy authority. She was sharp, intuitive, worked ungodly hours, and was rumoured to know more about the NSA’s inner workings than God himself.   “D.Brown’s  Digital Fortress”



-------------------------------      --------------------------------      ----------------------- 

-----------------------------------   ----------------------------      ---------------------------- 

-----------------------------    -----------------------     -------------------------- 

7.

It was a Saturday night, and Mahogany Row was all but deserted, its executives long gone----off enjoying whatever pastimes influential men enjoyed in their leisure. Although Brinkerhoff had always dreamed of a ‘real’ post with the agency, he had somehow ended up as a ‘personal aide’---the official cul de sac of the political rat race. The fact that he worked side by side with the single most powerful man in American intelligence was little consolation.    “Digital Fortress”


7.----------------------                         ------------------------

8.

[i]  Also to learn about several unknown factors of space travel such as physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness and of possible radiation in space.  

[ii] As system engineers they defined the technical requirements of the parts that constitute a system…..

[iii] A text is organized description or narration or information. It is usually split or divided into paragraphs.



8. i. ---------------------         -----------------    -------------------------    ------------------------------    

       --------------------------------  ----------------------    ----------------------------------

8.ii.------------------------    ---------------------------------  -------------------------------------

      ----------------------------------    ---------------------------------

8.iii. --------------------------     --------------------------       ----------------------------

     -----------------------------            ------------------------------- --------------------------

    ------------------------------

9.

Staring intently at the barren pocket of land, Langdon sensed that it was plenty large enough. Excitement surged through him. This was obviously where the camerlengo planned to take the antimatter! The chopper was pointing directly toward it!  [ “D. Brown’s Angels and Demons”]



9. ---------------------------------------              ---------------------------------------------------

    ---------------------------------------               ---------------------------------------------------


10. 


In the distance to the west, Langdon could see the twinkling delineation of the Mediterranean coast---a jagged border of luminescence beyond which spread an endless dark expanse of nothingness.
[Angels and Demons]

                                                            

10. --------------------       --------------------           --------------------------

    --------------------         ---------------------         --------------------------- 
                          
    -----------------------------------              ----------------------------------------



11.

World-renowned Harvard symbologist Robert Langdon is summoned to a Swiss research facility to analyse a cryptic symbol seared into the chest of a murdered physicist. What he discovers is unimaginable: a deadly vendetta against the Catholic Church by a centuries-old underground organisation---the illuminati. Desperate to save the Vatican from a powerful time bomb, Langdon joins forces in Rome with the beautiful and mysterious scientist Vittoria Vetra. Together they embark on a frantic hunt through sealed crypts, dangerous catacombs, deserted cathedrals, and the most secretive vault on earth…The long-forgotten illuminati lair.   “Angels and Demons”---blurb



11. ------------------------------      -----------------------------------        -----------------------------------

     ---------------------------------------    ----------------------------      ------------------------------------

     --------------------------------------    ----------------------------       ------------------------------------

    ----------------------------------         -------------------------------     ----------------------   -------------------------

      -----------------------------        -----------------------------          ----------------------------    


12.


When the NSA’s invincible code-breaking machine encounters a mysterious code it cannot break, the agency calls its head cryptographer, Susan Fletcher, a brilliant and beautiful mathematician. What she uncovers sends shock waves through the corridors of power. The NSA is being held hostage…not by guns or bombs, but by a code so ingeniously complex that if released it would cripple U.S. intelligence. Caught in an accelerating tempest of secrecy and lies, Susan Fletcher battles to save the agency she believes in. Betrayed on all sides, she finds herself fighting not only for her country……
“Blurb of D. Brown’s Digital Fortress”



12. -----------------------------------         ------------------------------------------------

     --------------------------------    -----------------------------------------   ---------------------------

     --------------------------------    ----------------------------------     -------------------------------------

     ----------------------------------      

13.

A lot of guidance in this book concerns written expression. This is because people seek advice and information about written English far more often than they do about spoken English. We all use speech apparently fairly naturally and usually without any obvious problems. Also, most of the time, spoken words disappear as soon as they have been uttered, so it is difficult for them to come back to haunt us.



13. -----------------------------------          ------------------------------             ---------------------------------  

     ----------------------------------      --------------------------     -------------------------------   ------------------- 

     ------------------------------------     ----------------------------  
_______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 9
In the following paragraphs, you’ll find one blank or more followed by a word in brackets. Fill in each blank with the word formed by adding an appropriate prefix, suffix or both to the word given in brackets:

1.  --------------------------[fortunate], the --------------------[grow] realisation of this fact
     
      is opening the door to ---------------------------------[numerable]false prophets who are
    
      advertising their own pet theories in -----------------------[social] as --------------------- 

      [science]. Science is ---------------------[continue] telling us through their mouths

      that we are doomed unless we give up --------------------------[smoke], adopt---or

      abolish---birth control, and so forth.

2.  Sudden bursts of -----------------------------------[excessive] heavy rain resulting in
      
       a large run-off of surplus water are the principal factors in causing soil -----------------
     
      [erode]. Other -----------------------------------[contribute] causes are the slope of the

      land, -------------------------[remove] of the -----------------------------[protect] coat of

      ----------------------------[vegetate], the ------------------------------[exist] of ruts along

      which the water can flow with ----------------------[rapid] -------------------------

     [gather] momentum, and the ----------------------[absent] of any checks to such flow.

     ----------------------[incredible] large quantities of precious  soil can be washed away

     if such conditions exist, as is -----------------------[unhappy]  too often the case.

3. ---------------------[close] connected with the ----------------------------[conserve] of

      water supplies is the problem of -----------------------------------[afforest]. The

      ---------------------------[system] -----------------------[plant] of ----------------------

      [suit] trees in every possible  or even in ------------------------[possible] areas, and
   
      the development of what one can ------------------------[civilise] forests, as

      distinguished from wild and ---------------------[tamed] jungles, is one of the most

      urgent needs of India. Such plantations would ------------------[direct] and ---------------

      [indirect] prove a source of ------------------[told] wealth to the country.

4. It is this sense of common humanity that is lacking today. If we take the-----------------

      [advance] nations of the last decade or two, we see ----------------------------[abundant]

     of ----------------------[nature] resources, great ----------------------------[intellect]

     ------------------------------------[penetrate], ----------------------------[wonder] scientific

      ----------------------------[achieve], even great development of discipline and

      ---------------------------------[leader].

5. We have to put theories into practice and ---------------------------------[military]

       ourselves and employ police only for purposes of maintaining internal order.

       All this is ---------------------------------[practice] if these are people who can make

       --------------------------------------[violence] their creed. We have seen that military

       might offer no -----------------------------[solve] for our disputes.
_______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 10
Complete each word given below using appropriate prefix, suffix or both:
1. conduct------                         =one who conducts

2. competit-----                         =one who competes

3. select--------                          =one who selects

4. regulat------                           =one that regulates

5. sprint-------                            =one who sprints

6. employ----                             = one who works for another

7. employ----                             =one who provides jobs

8. transmit-----                           =one that transmits

9. judge--------                           =sentence given by a judge

10.product-----                           =act of producing

11. swim---------                        =act of moving in water

12. prosecut---------                   =one who prosecutes

13. record------                           =one that records

14. senat------                             =member of upper assembly in US.

15. tract-----                                =motor vehicle used on farms

16. sens-----                                =device that detects

17. decorat------                         =one who decorates

18. refer-------                            =one who sees to the adherence of rules in a game

19. examin----                            =one who sits for an examination

20. absorb-----                            =one that absorbs

21. ----timely                              = not suitable

22. ------administer                    =administer dishonestly

23. -----allow                              =not allow

24. -----hydrate                           =lose a large amount of water

25. -----united                             =lacking unity

26. ------trust                              =lack of trust

27. ----value                                =reduce the value

28. -----moved                            =unaffected

29. -------sell                               =sell for a lower price

30. wit---------                             =stupid
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 11
Words function in sentences as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. From each numbered group given below, identify and write down in the space provided below the odd word that does not belong to the group:
                                                                          eccentric
e.g. scenic, horrific, eccentric, economic   --------------------------------

This group consists of adjectives formed by the suffix “-ic”: scenery---scenic,
horrify---horrific, economy---economic, ‘eccentric’ formed  from Greek word
‘ekkentros’. But ‘eccentric’ also refers to a person who is eccentric. 

1.   constant, resistant, resonant, pollutant         -----------------------------------

2.   defiant, accountant, attendant, defendant     -----------------------------------

3.   occupant, coagulant, militant, applicant       -----------------------------------     

4.   defendant, dependant, determinant, inhabitant  -------------------------------

5.   adamant, stimulant, remnant, constant          -----------------------------------

6.   condensate, regulate, inflate, deflate             -----------------------------------

7.   dictator, creditor, resistor, auditor                 -----------------------------------

8.   announcer, recorder, condenser, stopper       -----------------------------------

9.   incubator, arbitrator, reactor, reflector          ------------------------------------

10. concentrate, remonstrate, demonstrate, prostrate -------------------------------

11. explosive, restorative, relative, receptive      ------------------------------------

12. circular, molecular, ocular, secular               ------------------------------------

13. defiant, reliant, claimant, reluctant               ------------------------------------

14. indicator, actor, debtor, guarantor               -------------------------------------

15. reckoner, recorder, refractor, redeemer        ------------------------------------
________________________________________________________________________ 

Exercise 12
Select and write down from each group the word that is not formed with the help of an affix[a prefix or suffix].
                                                                                proctor
e.g. professor, proctor, protector, predator           -------------------------
Three of the four words are formed by adding the suffix ‘or’ to a string of letters already  existing as words :
profess [verb]---professor[noun], protect[v] ---protector[n], predate[v]---predator[n]. There is no word as ‘proct’ to which the suffix ‘or’ is added. ‘Proctor’[n] is a modified version of a word in  Middle English.
   
1.   recital, approval, survival, carnival              ---------------------------------

2.   collateral, burial, retrieval, betrayal             ---------------------------------

3.   notion, intention, contention, composition  ---------------------------------

4.   dislocate, dispatch, dissatisfy, disregard      --------------------------------

5.   disprove, dispute, disqualify, dismember    --------------------------------

6.   debrief, debug, deceive, decipher                --------------------------------

7.   decode, decompose, decorum, decontrol     --------------------------------

8.   dehydrate, dehumanise, defend, demotivate -------------------------------

9.   dismount, disobey, dismiss, disprove          --------------------------------

10. dispense, dislodge, dispossess, distrust       --------------------------------

11. reddish, childish, polish, bluish                   --------------------------------

12. redirect, redistribute, relish, regain              --------------------------------

13. refuse, reinfect, reheat, reinvent                  --------------------------------

14. rehydrate, reinsure, relive, relapse              ---------------------------------

15. immaterial, immense, immobile, immortal ---------------------------------

16. impalpable, immutable, imperfect, imperious -----------------------------

17. inalienable, incalculable, incessant, incoherent  ------------------------------

18. inflate, incorrect, incredible, incurable   ---------------------------------

19. irradiate, irrational, irreducible, irrefutable  ---------------------------------

20. irrelevant, irrupt, irresolute, irresponsive   ---------------------------------

21. reciprocal, reversal, dismissal, revival         ---------------------------------

22. objection, rejection, coronation, digestion     ----------------------------------      

23. poisonous, joyous, religious, jealous           ----------------------------------

24.  courageous, arduous, sensuous, glorious     ---------------------------------

25.  detector, detonator, decider, demonstrator   ----------------------------------

26.  specific, symbolic, terrific, majestic             ----------------------------------

27. public, prolific, prophetic, syllabic                ----------------------------------

28. collector, curator, collator, contributor          ----------------------------------

29. tremble, readable, suitable, taxable               -----------------------------------

30. planter, piper, player, plaster                         -----------------------------------
___________________________________________________________________________  

Exercise 13    (ex 41 Kaki 1)
From the following words separate the words with negative prefixes:
         illegible, disrepair, illuminate, dismay, disclose, deforest, discourage, disprove,
        irregular, irrigate, irrelevant, immature, immemorial, indifferent, inaction, insulin,
        inhabitant, mischief, misbehave    
___________________________________________________________________________

3. Synonyms and Antonyms

Exercise 14  
Fill in the blanks with appropriate synonyms:
1. require   ________________   _________   2. dress  ___________________

3. weather ________________     4. old  ________________  5. modern ____________  

6. abundant _______________    _______________  7. danger ________________

8. artificial _______________    _______________  9. distress ________________

10. drawback ___________________    _________________________

Fill in the blanks with antonyms:
1. temporary  _________________        2. seasonal (crops) ___________________

3. traditional  ___________________    4. destruction  _____________________

5. old   ___________________               6. naked         ____________________         

7. abundant _________________            8. artificial    ------------------------------

9. complex  _____________________      10. former  ________________

11. indigenous _________________    __________________________

12. rural   _________________    13. spectacular  ___________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise  15
For each of the numbered sets, match the words in A group with those in B.
Set 1
        A                                                 B
a. minor                                         i. major
b. modest                                      ii. boastful/ bragging
c. stunning                                   iii. ordinary
d. voluntary                                  iv. forced
e. commitment                              v. indifference

Set 2
        A                                                 B
a. believer                                       i. clarity                                      
b. asset                                           ii. amateur
c. professional                               iii. liability    
d. attention                                    iv. diversion/distraction
e. confusion                                    v. pagan

Set 3
      A                                                    B
a. allow                                           i. permit                                   
b. applaud                                      ii. repel
c. appreciate                                  iii. deny
d. attract                                         iv. criticise
e. ban                                               v. depreciate

Set 4
        A                                                     B
a. persuade                                       i. disperse    
b. relax                                            ii. integrate
c. smile                                           iii. dissuade  
d. segregate                                     iv. tense
e. meet                                              v. frown

Set 5
       A                                                       B
a. corrupt                                            i. timid
b. dynamic                                         ii. shy
c. dry                                                 iii. damp
d. confident                                       iv. chaste
e. bold                                                v. static
________________________________________________________________________ 

Exercise 16  
For each numbered word, tick the synonym with the correct spelling:
1. modest           a. humbel          b. polait            c. helpfull            d. demure
2. assurance       a. guarantee      b. garuntee        c. garantie            d. guarantie
3. vow                a. plege             b. commitment c. committment    d. promis
4. transmit          a. reach             b. comunicate   c. communicate    d. kumunicate     
__________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 17
Fill in the blanks with antonyms:
    abundant     x                                         artificial (synthetic)  x

    complex      x                                         diversity                   x

    fantasy        x                                          fictitious                  x

    genius         x                                          import                      x

    dangerous   x                                          rural                         x

    salvage       x                                           salination                x

    spectacular x                                           contaminate            x 

    guess          x                                           hydrate                   x     

    opaque       x                                           merit                       x   

    genuine      x                                           ascend                     x

    credit          x                                          attach                       x

    inflate         x                                          former                      x   

    afforest       x                                          love                          x  

    arrive          x                                          extrovert                   x
__________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 18    (ex 165  Kaki 2)
Find synonyms

Tick the choice carrying a message similar to each word:
1. chronic                        a. spreading disease        
2. incurable                     b. occurring at regular intervals
3. virus                            c. spread through air
4. responsive                  d. transfer    
5. carrier                         e. beyond cure
6. endemic                      f. Widespread occurrence
7. epidemic                     g.germ
8. eradicate                     h. Positively quick reaction
9. infectious                     i. remove
10. transmission               j. Ailment for a long time
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 19 
antonyms

Match each numbered word with its antonym:
1. fresh                                      a. base
2. scarce                                    b. ample
3. renounce                               c. sophisticated
4. sketchy                                 d. clear
5. noble                                     e. specific
6. spendthrift                             f. clarity
7. inferior                                   g. superior
8. defeat                                     h. artificial
9. hide                                        i. truce
10. disagreement                        j. stale
11. leave                                    k. impersonal
12. tenacity                                 l. accept 
13. praise                                   m. criticise                                      
14. offer                                      n. miser
15. confusion                              o. reveal
16. personal                                p. arrive   
17. genuine                                 q. receive
18. general                                  r. victory
19. vague                                    s. indifference   
20.crude                                      t. detailed      
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 20 
Match the words with their meanings:
1. friend                                a. one you may see around but do not know
2. acquaintance                     b. one you know very well
3. stranger                             c. one you met somewhere but do not have much contact
4. rival                       [i] one trying to become better in sports or business       
5. enemy                   [ii] one acting or speaking against another                       
6. competitor            [iii] one trying to become better in business                      
                                          one taking part in a competition
7. opponent              [iv] one playing or fighting against another                       
8.  chaos              [a] clarity                     
9. confusion        [b] knowledge              
10. ignorance      [c] dissuade                
11. persuade        [d] order                      
________________________________________________________________________

4. Vocabulary 
Exercise 21  
expand your active/passive vocabulary
       —similar-meaning expressions with slight distinctions

Learn the differences in meaning of these similar-meaning words
Set 1
scurry    ®¬scuttle, canter, potter, trot, saunter, promenade, glide,
                          rush, hasten, dash, hurry, walk briskly, flee, stroll, amble,
                          meander, jog, stroll, skid, walk, whizz by(past)

baffled    ®¬perplexed, puzzled, bewildered, mystified, stunned, dazed
                          (all these are generally used in the passive)

blink       ®¬glance, peer, stare, peep, peek

culprit     ®¬criminal,  victim, prisoner, sinner, thief

cheat       ®¬fool, deceive, betray, trick, con, take in

dispose of®¬get rid of, do away with, remove, throw away, discard

climax      ®¬zenith, pinnacle, peak, anti-climax

talented   ®¬capable, skilful, ignorant, educated, trained, clever, cunning

captivated®¬enthralled, attracted, moved, wonderstruck, impressed

scheming ®¬planning, plotting, conspiring

apparent  ®¬evident, easily seen or understood, clear, noticeable, not really real

escape     ®¬elope, disappear, run away, leave

persevere®¬persist, insist, compel, force

inherent  ®¬underlying, integral, internal, external, overt, covert

Set 2
These words are pronounced the same way but they have different spelling and meaning:
                stationary ~ stationery     compliment ~ complement
Think of similar expressions and learn them.

Set 3
‘Patient’ functions as an adjective and a noun. In these functions, it has different meanings. Find out what these are. Think of similar expressions.
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 22
Here are a few interesting ‘idiomatic’ expressions using ‘body parts’, very often heard in conversations. Refer to a dictionary, learn the messages, come to the class and share them with the class.   
    · keep your fingers crossed/ cross one’s fingers
     · foot the bill
     · meet head-on
     · look someone in the eye/face
     · toe the line
     · heart in the mouth
     · tongue in the cheek
     · shoulder responsibility
     · bend one’s back
     · armed to the teeth
     · stomach the news
     · have the cheek
     · hand to mouth existence
     · drag your feet
     · slip through your fingers
     · toe the line
     · keep somebody on their toes
     · wear your heart on your sleeve
    · cut off your nose to spite your face               
_________________________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 23 
add to your vocabulary

What is ‘protocol’?
What is a ‘runway’?
What’s the difference between a ‘podium’ and ‘lectern’?
What’s the difference between a ‘rival’ and an ‘enemy’?
Identify the words that express a humourous touch: ruffian, thug, scoundrel, villain, rogue, rascal.
What difference does the indefinite article make when used with ‘few’ and ‘little’?
What does ‘a Mr Sureshkumar is here to see you’ mean?
Learn the use of the indefinite article in this sentence:
                  ‘The Bible’ is a most interesting film.
______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 24  
Complete the sentences with proper matching:
cynical                   society is controlled by women rather than men.
matriarchal             is money given to employees when they leave service.            
gratuity                   the lion in his den is an idiom.                     
baggage                  is an adjective meaning ‘slightly warm’.  
beard                      people don’t believe that something good will happen.
tepid                       is an American expression while ‘luggage’ is British.
GMT                      is also known as Universal Time.
lethargy                  is a synonym for ‘inertia’.
pidgin                     is a mixture of English and a local language
syntax                    refers to the way we put words together to form sentences. 
_______________________________________________________________

5. Word games
Exercise 25  
word search
Locate and circle these words:
           exploit, challenge, infest, while, exclusive, cackle, tattoo

You’ll find more words; locate and circle them. 

M
a
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T
x
g
p
b
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p
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k
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b
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_____________________________________________________________

Exercise 26
word search
Locate and circle these words:
           modest, stunning, proud, special, wrote, benign, merit, minor

You’ll find five more words; locate and circle them.


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Exercise 27
Tick the odd expression from each of these sets:
1. garlic, cabbage, egg plant, okro      
2. lion, giraffe, hyena, donkey
3. Hindustani, Carnatic, Jazz, Kuchipudi
4. G7, Maxx, Karbonn, 3G
5. walk, amble, meander, trot
6. stare, glare, look, blare
7. mat, mattress, pillow, divan
8. laptop, desktop, DVD, iron
9. pavement, alley, street, lane
10. house, hamlet, bungalow, inn
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 28
Understand the meanings of words given below and fill in the blanks with the appropriate choices of words :
canvass         : persuade people to vote in favour of...       
propagate      : spread an idea so that it’ll influence people to accept it   
advertise       : present information in a most attractive manner
proclaim       : announce something of national importance
promulgate   : announce a new publicly and make it widely known
profess          : claim something to be true when it is not
disseminate  : spread information or knowledge
protest           : say or show disagreement or disapproval publicly
inform           : let someone know what they don’t know
announce       : make something public
              
The opposition MPs --------1-------- that they were going to ----------2----------- against the misleading -------------3------------- that the government was indulging in.

1.  a. informed         b. advertised      c. announced     d. canvassed         e. protested
2.  a. protest             b. advertise        c. canvass          d. promulgate       e. disseminate
3.  a. proclamation  b. propagation    c. canvassing    d. advertisement    e. promulgation
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 29 
pick odd words
Identify the odd words from the following sets and tick them:
1. high jump, javelin throw, relay, discuss
2. cricket, football, hockey, basketball
3. turnip, cabbage, potato, parsnip
4. gale, storm, typhoon, rain
5. mountain, hillock, mound, peak
6. doctor, teacher, parent, actor
7. protect, defect, reject, intellect
8. seek, reek, beek, peak
9. lovely, really, fastly, specifically
10. indiscipline, incognito, indistinct, inexperienced
__________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 30  
word game six
1. This is part of your food. It’s chilli hot and soaked in oil. Either mango or lemon                                                       
      pieces and spices form the content of this food. It is ____________________. 

2. Change the first letter of this word and it will mean: move fingers over a sensitive 
     part of someone’s body making them laugh. The word is __________________.

3. We use this word to refer to the movement of tears from the eyes. We also use this
     word to refer to the slow movement of people to gather in a given place. You need
     to add one letter to the second word. The word is _______________.    

4. Remove the last two letters from the second word and add one letter. It will mean:
    ‘difficult to deal with’. The word is _____________.                   
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 31
If you are a cricket fan, you’ll know these two words: ‘bat’ and ‘bail’.
‘Bat’ is a piece of wood with a handle, which a batsman uses to hit the ball to score runs. 
‘Bat’ is also an animal that moves in the night and looks like a mouse with wings.
1. The single word for ‘in the night or during the night’ is___________________ .
       Find this word by rearranging these letters: ctrulnaon. The opposite of this word
       is ‘diurnal’ which means ‘during the day’.     [nocturnal]
2.‘Bail’ is a piece of wood kept on the stumps. This word is used also in another
      context [place]. It is a ______________ of law where an accused or a defendant asks
      for ‘bail’, that is, permission to leave jail until the trial.     [court]
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 32  word game eight
      A baker is a person who makes cakes and bread.
1. A ________________ is a glass cup used in chemistry laboratory.
2. Any road leading to a school will have several speed- ____________s for vehicles
       to move slowly.
3. When traffic lights are on amber, it means ___________________
      [a] you can move       [b] you should stop         [c] you should be ready to move  
4. Sheep’s meat is ‘mutton’. Pig’s meat is ___________. Cow’s meat is  ____________. 
  ________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 33 game nine
Match the following:
1. gathering             i. group of people watching or listening to a play/concert/speech  
2. mob                    ii. people in great number in public places
3. audience            iii. large number of people in excited mood
4. crowd                iv. meeting of people for a particular purpose
_____________________________________________________________ 

Exercise 34 game ten
Choose the best expression to fill in the blanks:
1. If I were defying, I would be ____________.
      a. questioning the authority   b. disagreeing  c. refusing help     d. rejecting an offer
2. If I was ignorant, it would mean ________________.
      a. I’d be stupid              b. I’d be a fool.     c. I’d be a dunce     d. I lacked knowledge
3. When people understand you, you’re__________________   
      a. intelligent                           b. intelligible    c. clever             d. an intellectual
4.  If I lose hope , it results in___________________
      a. rejection               b. dejection     c. injection     d. reflection      e. elation 
5. When I contemplate, it results in __________________
      a. rejection               b. dejection     c. injection     d. reflection      e. elation
6. If you called yourself as someone you’re not, for personal gains, you’d be_________.
      a. a cheat                  b. an actor         c. a pretender         d. an imposter
7. When I say ‘I’m guilty,’ I’m _______________.
      a. professing             b. confessing         c. confiding         d. protesting
8. Dissatisfaction not expressed forcefully is__________________.
      a. criticising               b. rambling            c. grumbling         d. blaming. One of the
9. important duties of an embassy is to _______________.
      a. canvass                  b. propagate           c. disseminate         d. advertise
10. If the noun ‘dog’ were repeated every time there was a reference to it, it would
      make reading ______________________
      a. interesting              b. monotonous       c. disinteresting      d. exciting
11. Oil and salt are added to a pickle to ________________ the food for several days.
      a. preserve                  b. protect                c. save                   d. continue
12. How do you greet someone on their birthday or marriage day?
      a. Congrats!           b. Many happy returns of the day   
      c. Best of luck!      d. All the best!        e. Congratulations!  
_______________________________________________________________________      
                       
Exercise 35
Match the words with their meanings:
1. friend                                a. one you may see around but do not know
2. acquaintance                     b. one you know very well
3. stranger                             c. one you met somewhere but do not have much contact
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 36
Match the words with the meanings:
1. rival                       [i] one trying to become better in sports or business       
2. enemy                   [ii] one acting or speaking against another                       
3. competitor            [iii] one trying to become better in business                      
                                          one taking part in a competition
4. opponent              [iv] one playing or fighting against another                       
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 37
Match the following:
1. chaos              [a] clarity                     
2. confusion       [b] knowledge              
3. ignorance       [c] dissuade                  
4. persuade        [d] order                        
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise 38
1. Rearrange the letters : lbceh to get the word meaning ‘let out air noisily’ __________
2. Fill in the two letters  __ __lingual meaning ‘speaking two languages’.
3. A _____________ system uses only 0 and 1 as a system of numbers. The word is                            
      related to computing.            
4. This word also means ‘let out air noisily’. It is ________________
 _____________________________________________________________________

Exercise 39 
rearrange letters to form synonyms for the meanings given below the figures: 




Exercise 40  
Complete the following; the first one is completed for you:
  We may hear but may not always listen

  We may see but may not always -------          
 
  we may touch but may not always --------     
 
  We may eat but may not always ----------      

  We may write but may not always-------------

  We may argue but may not always ---------         

  We may read but may not always ----------------   

  We may struggle but may not always--------------        

  We may compete but may not always------------   

These sentences when completed will have messages you need to think seriously
      about because they will make you humble and help you take life with a pinch of salt.
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Exercise 41
1. Let’s say you go into a bookshop, on impulse rather than by intention. What do you do?
You move round, look at the titles and the authors, flip or glance through a few pages, look at the back covers where the publishers normally provide some interesting info about the books and the authors.

We can replace the underlined expressions and the one in bold with two single words. Do you know them? They are __________________   and  ______________.

2. Fill the blanks with ‘impulse’ or ‘intention’ :
He doesn’t think. He acts on ________________.                               
My _________________ is to save money, not to spend it.                  

3. You know ‘neck’ is a part of human body.
 The back part of the neck is called _______.                                                
. The front part is the ________.                                                                     
The human body is divided into two parts: 1. head  2. trunk [=the rest of the body].
Sometimes, the police find a corpse or dead body without the head. The word for such a body is headless body.   
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information [‘info’ is an abbreviation and an informal expression]
1. Do you know the word for the ‘top edge of a cup/glass/bowl’? It’s ‘brim’
    We say ‘fill the cup to the brim.’

2. Do you know the word for the ‘edge of something circular’? It’s ‘rim’.
    We say ‘Don’t hold the glass by the rim. The glass contains hot water.’

3. Another word that comes to mind is ‘grim’ which means ‘looking very serious’.
    We say ‘Why does she always look grim? I’ve never seen her smile.’

4. ‘Grim’ reminds me of another word ‘glum’ which means ‘sad, quiet and unhappy’.
     We say ‘Don’t be so glum, darling. Things will look up soon enough.’
     The underlined expression means ‘become better’.

5.
You know who a ‘villain’ is. There’s almost no film without a villain. A villain, as you know, does indulge in doing evil things. But you’ll be surprised to learn that this word once referred to ‘an honest agricultural labourer’!

 6.
Today we get money as ‘salary’ for the work we do for someone. In olden days, only salt ration was given to soldiers. This ration was known as ‘salarium’, which later became ‘salary’.

7.
You know what a ‘sandwich’ is, don’t you? It’s two toasted thin slices of bread with butter and jam, meat, or tomato and cucumber between the bread slices. People eat sandwiches for breakfast.

8.  
Do you know how this food got its name? John Montagne belonged to a place called Sandwich in England. He was a round-the-clock gambler. As he didn’t want to stop gambling, he thought of having food like the present day sandwiches. The name of his town became the name of the food.

9
Do you know the words for the sounds animals make?
The cow moos.        The chicken cackles.    The donkey brays.   The cat mews or miaows.
The horse neighs.         The goat bleats.       The sheep baas or bleats.
The dog barks.         The pigeon coos.          The wolf bays.   
[All the underlined words are verbs referring to the sounds the animals produce.]
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