Friday, 22 August 2014

Key to vocabulary exercises

Key to vocabulary exercises
analogy
The pairs contain general: specific
1. (b) Table is one kind of furniture; ship is one kind of vehicle.
2. (a) Mahogony is one type of wood; villa is one type of house.  ‘b’ and ‘c’ could have been correct if they were ‘poem:sonnet’ and ‘container: bottle’.
3. (d) Novelist is one kind of writer; woodpecker is one kind of bird.
4. The lead pair has an inventor and what he invented in that order. So ‘c’ and ‘d’ are wrong. ‘a’ is wrong because it has the invention and the inventor next. So by elimination ‘b’ is the answer.
5. The lead pair has small and big—a contrast. The ‘c’ pair has no contrast. ‘a’ and ‘b’ are synonyms. Again by elimination ‘d’ is the answer.
6. a person who is ingenious (= clever) will naturally be skillful. A person who is ingenuous (= innocent) will naturally be frank. So ‘c’ is the answer. ‘d’, ‘a’ and ‘b’ contain opposites.
7. courtroom is the place for witness. ‘d’ is the answer: train is the place for guard . ‘b’ and ‘c’ don’t talk about places. If ‘criminal’ instead of ‘inspector’ was there, it could be correct.
8. Orange is a type of fruit. ‘d’ has the answer: murder is a type of crime. ‘c’ has the positions wrong, ‘a’ and ‘b’ have: whole: part
9. nose enables us to smell. ‘a’ is the answer: tongue enables us to taste
10. train requires coal to function; ‘c’ is the answer: man requires brain to function.
11. bread is made from flour. ‘b’ is the answer. TV is a gadget; wall is made of bricks, not cement, ‘d’ is wrong.
12. Light removes darkness. ‘b’ knowledge removes ignorance
13. leaf is part of plant. ‘d’ is the answer
14. sock protects foot. ‘c’ is the answer
15. knife and fork are thought of as one unit. ‘a’ is the answer
16. fire produces warmth. ‘b’ is the answer, ‘a’ rain doesn’t produce cloud, ‘c’ earth doesn’t produce river, ‘d’ chair gives comfort (doesn’t produce it)
17. prune = cut off some of the branches (hedge) so that the trees will look better
      ‘a’ trim= cut off hair so you look neater and tidier
18. euology is a piece of writing that praises ‘d’ is the answer: elegy is a form of writing that laments. Comedy is a piece of writing that doesn’t laugh but makes people laugh
19. Like in the 18, the lead pair describes what something does; ‘a’ is the answer: hyperbole exaggerates, camera cannot click on its own, comedy doesn’t laugh
20. the lead pair contains a contrast. ‘b’ contains the contrast, ‘a’ should have been ‘begin: end/ conclude’, ‘c’ should have been ‘create: destroy’, ‘d’ should have been ‘be naked: dress’.
21. ‘b’ is the answer
22. ‘c’ is the answer, food removes hunger
23. bed is meant for resting. ‘d is the answer: dress is for wearing, ‘a’ should have been book: reading, ‘b’ should have been lamp: lighting, ‘c’ should have been house: living
24. The second of the lead pair is higher in degree, so ‘b’ is the choice
25. ‘c’
26. attachment can lead to love. ‘a’ being frugal can lead to parsimony. ‘b’, ‘c’ and ‘d’ have no such relationship.
27. warm can lead to heat. ‘d’ wind can lead to a tornado. ‘c’ firm is positive while dogmatic is negative, ‘b’ purloin= steal has no connection to pilfering, ‘a’ jumping does not lead to flying
28. sun leads to heat, (d) slap leads to pain, ‘c’ glass doesn’t lead to breaking, ‘b’ contains  partial  opposites, ‘a’ jumping doesn’t necessarily lead to catching
29. for cure you need a drug, ‘a’ crime: jail would’ve been appropriate, ‘b’ eat: grow/drowsiness, ‘d’ pair is not related, ‘c’ is the answer to show gratitude, generosity is needed.
30. cloud can lead to rain. The closest to this is water: growth.
31. throwing can result in breakage, ‘d’ is the answer: ego can lead to being vain
32. copyright is official documentation of originality of work by an author. ‘c’ is the answer: patent is official documentation of originality of work by an inventor. ‘a’ and ‘b’ give right to movement, ‘d’ gives right to control behaviour
33. code is the appropriate receptacle for meaning; ‘a’ is the answer: safe is the appropriate receptacle for valuables. ‘c’ has no such relationship, ‘b’ confidence can cause sharing secrets but is not a receptacle, ‘d’ documents can also be kept in a safe.
34. a diary records movements of a person; ‘a’ a log records movements of a ship. ‘d’ passbook doesn’t record only deposits, ‘b’ a journal can record things other than science, too, ‘c’ the relationship is different to the lead pair.

Exercise 2
35. ‘a’ medley isn’t an integral part of a song but is a composition of various songs into one
      ‘b’ sketch is a mere outline whereas painting is a finished product
       ‘c’ index is not integral part of a book
      ‘d’ is the answer: pirouette is an integral part—a spin—of a ballet
36. ratiocination(=reasoning) is a part of thinking. ‘a’ is the choice: supposition is part of theorising.
37. ‘d’ contains negative: positive like the lead pair.
38. itinerary contains details of a trip. ‘d’ syllabus contains details of a course. Legend is a guide to interpret a map.
39. awl is an instrument that pierces. (d) sickle is an instrument that cuts grass
40. surgeon needs to be dextrous.  (d) Acrobat need to be agile.      
41. the credulous can be duped. (c) The naive get cheated.
42. (c) is the answer
43. The lead pair has positive: negative connotation. (a) is the answer.
44. ‘b’ is the choice/
45. ‘d’ is the choice.
46. ‘b’ is the choice.
47. people live in houses; (b) birds live in nests.
48. can’t cycle without pedal. (a) can’t drive without accelerator.
49. night and day are two divisions of time. (d) head and tail are two divisions of a coin.
50. running causes breathlessness. (d) tension causes headache.
51. no sight without eye. (a) no taste without tongue
52. You need head to  think. (b) you need broom to sweep.
53. without chalk no blackboard. (c) without ball no bat
54. pedestrians have to use only the pavement. (b) vehicles have to use only the lanes.
55. heightened motion. (b) heightened emotion
56. degree in relationship in the lead pair. (a) is the choice
57. increase in movement. (b) increase in emotion
58. increase in quantity. (c) increase in quantity
59. increase in movement. (a) increase in emotion  (c) anger : rage would’ve  been correct.
60. minimu : maximum. (d) minimum : maximum (b) drizzling : pouring would’ve been correct.
61. general : specific  (b) general : specific
62. general : specific (a) general : specific
63. general : specific (c) general : specific

Exercise 3
1. reliable    2. specially   3. editorial   4. considerable, reduction, deployment  
5. friendship    6. reduction    7. treatment   8. sensible, suggestion   9. misplaced
10.displaced    11. amazement, magician   12. recommendation, enable   13. collection
14. defence, lawyer, prosecutor  15. payment, electricity, disconnected  16.illiteracy 
17.satisfaction  18. justification   19.revolutionised, communication  20. denial
21.accusation   22. development, inadequate  23. illtreated  24. refugees, rehabilitation,
government, ignoring 25. corruption, miserable  26. organisations, circulated, employees
27.wooden  28. suggestion, recommendation, ensure, corrective, workers, retraining,
supervision, equipment, operational, revision, desirable, management, modification,
transformation. 29.carefully, renewable, development, exploitation, erosion, siltation,
destruction, depletion, irreversible, population, particularly, housing, deterioration
30. assessment, usually, evaluator, information 
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Exercise 4
abnormal    ably       absolutely    accessible   accuracy     package     amoral      afoot
enormity     endanger  enable  permission      misplace    discussion  disappear    uniform       immature   empower     illicit     illegible      decompose  mistrust       distrust       mistreat      mistime       irreversible     inappropriate  misappropriate  incredulous    incredible    visible  spacious    circular      digestion counsellor     speechless      reproduction    deepen     demerit     antibacterial   counterpose     dismissal      deactivation     creator     rebellion     creamy    shaky  countersign 

no affixes: adage,  alacrity,   dictionary,  military,  endure,  enemy,   mission,   generous, uniform,   immaculate, emblem,  illicit, declare, mistake, visible, regular, religion,  
anticipate,  motor
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Exercise 5
deregulate,  disunity,  disappear,   unconvincing,   countermeasure, declassify, inability,
irresponsible,  malnutrition, non-/inhuman,  subeditor, unable/disable,   inefficient, non-stop, non-Whites,   inconsiderate,   depopulate,  uncover/discover,   immaterial, illogical,
uncooked, dismember,   underweight, irreligious,  submarine,  displeased   
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Ex. 6
brotherhood, brotherly  speechless, speechify, admirable, admiration, bearable, reflective,   nationhood, national, reliable, silken, colourful, colouration, colourless, happiness      neighbourhood, neighbourly,  despotic, dictation, dictator, announcer, announcement     auditor, designer, secrecy, mileage, regularise, regulation, specificity, specify, restive,    
examiner, examination   harden     intensity    countable, counter, countless
amplification, amplifier, denial, reader, readable, successful, soften, softness, softly
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Ex. 7
budgetary    reporter   argument   repetition   advertisement   rebellion   calculator
unforgettable   conversion   attacker   administration    performance  revelation  indicator
invention    juggler   compulsion   sensation   probationer   prevention  captor  catchable
educator    distributor   sprinter 
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Ex. 8
1. effective, communication, essential, practical, written, spoken, invaluable, glossary,  
    accessible, guidance, writing, speaking   
2. extensive, coverage, technicalities, understanding, spelling, punctuation
3. overdraft, protection, insurance, protecting, unable, repay, illness, unemployment
    ‘facility’ is a word in its own right derived from L. facilitas
4. underpinning, effective, performance, appraisal, relevance, simply, improvements,
    concerned, development, participative, organizational
5. forerunner, literally, believed, handed, guiding, written, incredibly, advanced, embody
6. security, analyst, slightly, puzzlement, appealing, ex-wife, prowled, directorial, saucy,
    intuitive, ungodly, rumoured, workings
    ‘authority’ is a word in its own right derived from OFr. autorite
7. deserted, executives, enjoying, influential, enjoyed, dreamed, agency, ended, personal,
    official, political, worked, powerful, American, intelligence, consolation
8. i. unknown, factors, physiological, effects, prolonged, weightlessness, radiation
   ii. engineers, defined, technical, requirements, parts
  iii. organized, description, narration, information, usually, divided, paragraphs 
9. staring, intently, sensed, excitement, surged, obviously, planned, pointing, directly
10. twinkling, delineation, jagged, endless, nothingness
11. renowned, symbologist, summoned, seared, murdered, physicist, discovers,
      unimaginable, deadly, underground, organisation, powerful, joins, forces, beautiful,
      mysterious, scientist, sealed, dangerous, deserted, secretive, forgotten
12. breaking, mysterious, cryptographer, beautiful, mathematician, uncovers, sends,
      waves,  corridors, held, guns, bombs, ingeniously, released, intelligence, accelerating,   
      secrecy, lies, battles, believes, betrayed, sides, finds, fighting
13. guidance, concerns, written, expression, information, spoken, apparently, fairly,
      naturally, usually
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Ex.9
1. unfortunately, growing, innumerable, sociology, scientific, continually, smoking
2. excessively, erosion, contributory, removal, protective, vegetation, existence
      rapidly, gathering, absence, incredibly, unhappily
3. closely, conservation, afforestation, systematic, planting, suitable, impossible,
      civilised, untamed, directly, indirectly, untold
4. advanced, abundance, natural, intellectual, penetration, wonderful, achievement,
      leadership
5. demilitarise, practicable, non-violence, solution 
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Ex.10
1.conductor   2. competitor   3. selector   4. regulator   5. sprinter   6. employee
7. employer   8. transmitter   9. judgement  10. production   11. swimming  12.prosecutor
13. recorder   14. senator    15. tractor   16. sensor  17. decorator   18. referee
19. examinee  20. absorber   21. untimely   22. maladminister   23. disallow 24. dehydrate  25. disunited  26. distrust/mistrust  27. devalue  28. unmoved  29.undersell 30. witless                                                      
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Ex.11
1. pollutant [n] The others are adjectives.   2. defiant [adj] The others are nouns.
3. coagulant [n--substance] The others are also nouns but refer to persons.
4. determinant [n-a factor] The others are also nouns but refer to persons.
5. stimulant [n] The others are adjectives.   6. condensate[n] The others are verbs.
7. resistor [an object] The others are also nouns but refer to people.
8. announcer[a person] The others are all objects.
    [note: ‘stopper’ refers to a person only in north American English.]
9. arbitrator [a person] The others are all objects.
10.concentrate is also a noun[=food] The others are all verbs.
11. relative [a person]  ‘relative’ is an adjective but also refers to a person.
The others are all adjectives. [note: ‘explosive’ is a substance but is also an adjective.]
12. circular[a noun] The others are all adjectives.
13. claimant [n-a person] The others are all adjectives.
14. indicator [n-object] The others are also nouns but refer to persons.
15. redeemer [n-person] The others are all objects.
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Ex.12
1. carnival. ‘-al’ is not a suffix here. The word is taken from Italian.  recite—recital,
    approve—approval, survive—survival
2. collateral. ‘-al’ is not a suffix here. The word is taken from Middle English. bury—
    burial,  retrieve—retrieval, betray—betrayal
3. notion. ‘-tion’ is not a suffix here. The word is taken from Latin.  intend—intention, 
    contend--contention, compose—composition
4. dispatch ‘dis’ is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Italian or Spanish. 
    [dis+locate=dislocate, dis+satisfy=dissatisfy, dis+regard=disregard]
5. dispute. ‘dis-’is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Old French
6. deceive. ‘de-’is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Old French.
7. decorum. ‘de-’is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Latin.
8. defend. ‘de-’is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Old French
9. dismiss. ‘dis-’ is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Latin.
10. dispense. The word is taken from Latin via Old French.
11. polish. ‘-ish’ is not a suffix here. The word is taken from Old French.
12. relish. ‘-ish’ is not a suffix here. The word is taken from Middle English.
13. refuse. ‘re-’ is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Old French.
14. relapse. ‘re-’ is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Latin.
15. immense. ‘im-’ is not a prefix here. The word is taken from French.
16. imperious. ‘im-’is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Latin.
17. incessant. ‘in-’ is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Latin via Old French.
18. inflate. ‘in-’ is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Latin.
19. irradiate. ‘ir-’ is not a prefix here. The word is taken from Latin.
20. irrupt. The word is taken from Latin.
21. reciprocal. ‘-al’ is not a suffix here. The word is taken from Latin.
22. coronation. ‘-tion’ is not a suffix here. The word is taken from Latin.
23. jealous.       ‘-ous’ is not a suffix here. The word is taken from Old French.
24. arduous.  This is taken from Latin.
25. demonstrator. ‘-or’ is not a suffix here. This word is taken from Latin.
26. symbolic. ‘-ic’ is not a suffix here. This word is taken from French.
27. public.      ‘-ic’ is not a suffix here. This word is taken from Old French.
28. curator.  ‘-or’ is not a suffix here. This word is taken from Latin. 
29. tremble. ‘-ble’ is not a suffix here. This word is taken from Old French.
30. plaster  ‘-er’ is not a suffix here. This word is taken from Latin.
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Ex.13
illegible, disrepair, disclose, deforest, discourage, disprove,
irregular, irrelevant, immature, indifferent, inaction, misbehave    
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Ex. 14
synonyms: need/want,  clothing,    climate,   new, scientific,   ample/plenty,  hazard,
                   contrived/unnatural,  suffering/pain,  defect/disadvantage
 antonyms: permanent, perennial, scientific, preservation, modern, dressed, limited, natural,
                   simple, latter, imported/foreign,  urban, ordinary
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Ex. 15
Antonyms: set 1  i, ii, iii, iv, v  set 2 v, iii, ii, iv, i   set 3 iii, iv, v, ii, i  
                   set 4 iii, iv, v, ii, i   set 5 iv, v, iii, ii, i
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Ex. 16
1. demure    2. Guarantee   3. Commitment   4. Communicate
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Ex. 17
limited, simple, reality, idiot, safe, destroy, ordinary, know, transparent, bogus/false, debit/ discredit, deflate, deforest, leave/depart, natural, unity, real, export, urban, desalination, decontaminate, dehydrate, demerit, descend, detach, latter, hate, introvert
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Ex. 18
1. j   2. e  3. g   4.h    5.a    6.b   7. f   8. i  9. c   10. d
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Ex. 19
1. j  2. B   3. l 4. t  5. A   6.   7. g 8. r 9. o 10. i 11. p 12. s  13.m  14. q 15. F  16. k 17. h  18. e  19. d  20. c      
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Ex. 20
1. b    2. c   3. a  4. i  5. ii   6. iii  7. iv  8. d    9. a  10. b   11. c
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Exs. 21, 22, 23 are learning exercises.
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Ex.24
Cynical people don’t believe that something good will happen.
Matriarchal society is controlled by women rather than men.
gratuity is money given to employees when they leave service.            
Baggage is an American expression while ‘luggage’ is British.
beard the den in his den is an idiom.                     
tepid is an adjective meaning ‘slightly warm’.  
GMT is also known as Universal Time.
Lethargy is a synonym for ‘inertia’.
pidgin is a mixture of English and a local language
syntax refers to the way we put words together to form sentences. 
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Ex.25
exploit, challenge, infest, while, exclusive, cackle, tattoo

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Clamour, core, wore, hassle, apt, handle, sample, pole
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Ex. 26
           modest, stunning, proud, special, wrote, benign, merit, minor

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hamper,  eel, ram, over, rag, point, vain, stern, am,  ram,  rot, bees, spa  
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Ex. 27
1. garlic   2. Donkey (domestic)  3. Kuchipudi ( a dance form) 4.G7 (mobile producer) 
5. trot       6. blare    7. Pillow    8. Iron    9. Pavement    10. Inn (a place where travellers rest for a night)
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 28
1. c  2.a   3. b 
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Ex. 29
1. relay is a track event; the others are field events.
2. basketball has five players, while the others have eleven players.
3. cabbage is not a root vegetable whereas the others are.
4. rain is without wind, the others include wind
5. peak is part of a mountain, the others are one of a kind
6. parent is not a professional, the others are
7. intellect is only a noun while the others are verbs
8. beek is not a word at all
9. there is no fastly; fast is both adjective and adverb, the others are adverbs
10. the ‘in’ is part of ‘incognito’, it’s not a negative prefix here whereas it is in other words.
__________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 30
1. pickle   2. Tickle  3. Trickle 4. tricky
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Ex.31
1. nocturnal  2. Court
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Ex. 32
1. beaker  2. Breaker  3.  Pork  4. beer     
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Ex. 33
a. iv       b. iii       c. i         d. ii
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Ex. 34
1. a  2. d  3. b  4. b  5. d  6. d   7. b   8. c   9. c  10. b   11. a   12. b
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 35
1. b    2. c  3. a
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Ex. 36
1. i   2. ii   3. iii   4. iv
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 37
1. d   2. a  3. b  4. c
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 38
1. belch  2. Bilingual  3. Binary  4. burp
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Ex. 39
1. inspector        2. Amenable    3. motivation     4. Monopoly     5. Renowned
6. negate            7. Different      8.  Contaminated    9. Opportunity chance  10. Eliminate   
___________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 40
notice, feel, taste, publish, convince, comprehend, succeed, win
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Ex. 41

1. ‘browse’  and ‘blurb’ 2. impulse, intention  3. nape, throat
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