Monday, 2 June 2014

Past tense forms

4.23 Tenses

Note: The following is part of my book entitled A Handy Book on English Grammar

Verbs, their Tenses and their Forms

Tense forms bring verbs and time together. They act as bridge between verbs and time. They express the time periods (past, present and future) in relation to actions (‘doing’) and states (‘being’).

We express our thoughts through sentences in ‘active’ or ‘passive’ voice (You’ll learn about ‘voices’ in subsection ‘Transformation of Sentences’ in Part II.) We form ‘statement’ or ‘question’ sentences (You’ll learn about these in Part II). The sentences we use are ‘affirmative’ or ‘negative(You’ll learn about ‘negative sentences’ in Part II). We use ‘regular’ and ‘irregular’ and ‘state’ verbs. We use these verbs in the different forms of past, present and future tenses.

As you’ll see, the tables 4.24—4.47 (past), 4.57—4.80 (present), 4.90—4.113 (future) are complete in themselves and provide you with sample sentences (both affirmative and negative, statement and question and all these in active and passive voice)  for finite verbs(regular, irregular, state) in all the forms of the three tenses. You can use these tables to clear your doubts about forming tenses appropriately.

Past tense

Tenses
                        Forms

Past

Present
Future
simple, progressive, perfect, perfect progressive
simple, progressive, perfect, perfect progressive
simple, progressive, perfect, perfect progressive

In the following pages, you’ll find, in 24 tables, four forms of verbs in the past tense:    
     4.24—irregular verbs in affirmative statement sentences in active voice
     4.25—regular verbs in affirmative statement sentences in active voice
     4.26—‘State’ verb: Be in affirmative statement sentences in active voice
     4.27—‘State’ verb: Have in affirmative statement sentences in active voice
     4.28—irregular verbs in negative statement sentences in active voice
     4.29—regular verbs in negative statement sentences in active voice
     4.30—‘State’ verb: Be in negative statement sentences in active voice
     4.31—‘State’ verb: Have in negative statement sentences in active voice
     4.32—irregular verbs in question sentences in active voice
     4.33—regular verbs in question sentences in active voice
     4.34—‘State’ verb: Be in question sentences in active voice
     4.35—‘State’ verb: Have in question sentences in active voice
     4.36—irregular verbs in negative question sentences in active voice
     4.37—regular verbs in negative question sentences in active voice
     4.38—‘State’ verb: Be in negative question sentences in active voice
     4.39—‘State’ verb: Have in negative question sentences in active voice  
     4.40—irregular verbs in affirmative statement sentences in passive voice
     4.41—regular verbs in affirmative statement sentences in passive voice
     4.42—irregular verbs in negative statement sentences in passive voice
     4.43—regular verbs in negative statement sentences in passive voice
     4.44—irregular verbs in affirmative question sentences in passive voice
     4.45—regular verbs in affirmative question sentences in passive voice
     4.46—irregular verbs in negative question sentences in passive voice
     4.47—regular verbs in negative question sentences in passive voice

4.24 past tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—active voice
 Irregular verbs

                                                  past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
Perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural        
I spoke
We spoke
I was speaking
We were speaking
I had spoken
We had spoken
I had been speaking
We had been speaking

second   singular
               plural
You spoke
You spoke
You were speaking
You were speaking
You had spoken
You had spoken
You had been speaking
You had been speaking

third      singular


              plural  
He spoke
She spoke
It spoke  
They spoke
He was speaking
She was speaking
It was speaking
They were speaking
He had spoken
She had spoken
It had spoken
They had spoken
He had been speaking
She had been speaking
It had been speaking
They had been speaking


Note: 1. As you can see, there is only one difference in the use of auxiliary verb: ‘were’ in the past
                 progressive for the first and third person plural subjects.      
            2. Simple past: same past tense form for all subjects in singular and plural.
                 Past progressive tense form: was + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it
                                                               were + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                 past perfect tense form: had + past participle of the verb ¬ for all persons, singular and plural.
                 past perfect progressive tense form: had + been + -ing to the verb¬ for all persons
                 
4.25 past tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—active voice
regular verbs
                                                    past tense forms
   person
simple
  Progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural        
I talked
We talked
I was talking
We were talking
I had talked
We had talked
I had been talking
We had been talking
second   singular
               plural
You talked
You talked
You were talking
You were talking
You had talked
You had talked
You had been talking
You had been talking
third      singular


              plural  
He talked
She talked
It talked  
They talked
He was talking
She was talking
It was talking
They were talking
He had talked
She had talked
It had talked
They had talked
He had been talking
She had been talking
It had been talking
They had been talking

Note: 1. As you can see, there is only one difference in the use of auxiliary verb: ‘were’ in the past progressive for the first and third plural subjects.  
          2. Simple past: past tense form for all subjects in singular and plural.
              past progressive tense form: was + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and   
                                                                                                              ‘it’                                                               
                                                            were + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and
                                                                                                               ‘they’
              past perfect tense form: had + past participle of the verb ¬ for all persons,
                                                                                                              singular and plural.
              past perfect progressive tense form: had + been + -ing to the verb¬ for all persons

4.26 past tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—active voice

 State’ verbs: ‘Be’

                              past tense forms
   Person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
I was a teacher.
We were teachers.
I had been a teacher.
We had been teachers.
second singular
             plural
You were a teacher.
You were teachers.
You had been a teacher.
You had been teachers.
third    singular

            plural  
He was a teacher.
She was a teacher.
They were teachers.
He had been a teacher.
She had been a teacher.
They had been teachers.

Note: 1. ‘was’, ‘were’ and ‘been’ are derived from the main verb ‘be’.
            2. Use ‘was’ with ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                Use ‘were’ with ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          3. past perfect tense form for ‘was’ and ‘were’ is ‘had been’.
            4. We don’t use ‘be’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

4.27 past tense forms in Affirmative statement sentences—active voice

 State Verb: ‘have'

                              past tense forms
   Person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
I had a car.
We had cars.
I had had a car.
We had had cars.
second singular
             plural
third    singular

            plural
You had a car.
You had cars.
He had a car.
She had a car.
They had cars.
You had had a car.
You had had cars.
He had had a car.
She had had a car.
They had had cars.


Note: Remember that ‘had’ and ‘had had’ are common for first, second and third persons, singular
            and plural. Past perfect tense form of ‘had’ is ‘had had’.   

4.28 past tense forms in negative statement sentences—active voice  
Irregular verbs 
                                               past tense forms
   Person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
First      singular
             plural       
I didn’t speak
We didn’t speak
I wasn’t speaking
We weren’t speaking
I hadn’t spoken
We hadn’t spoken
I hadn’t been speaking
We hadn’t been speaking
second singular
             plural
You didn’t speak
You didn’t speak
You weren’t speaking
You weren’t speaking
You hadn’t spoken
You hadn’t spoken
You hadn’t been speaking
You hadn’t been speaking
third    singular


            plural  
He didn’t speak
She didn’t speak
It didn’t speak  
They didn’t speak
He wasn’t speaking
She wasn’t speaking
It wasn’t speaking
They weren’t speaking
He hadn’t spoken
She hadn’t spoken
It hadn’t spoken
They hadn’t spoken
He hadn’t been speaking
She hadn’t been speaking
It hadn’t been speaking
They hadn’t been speaking

Note: The forms for the meaning of negation:
          1. simple past: didn’t + base verb ¬ for all persons, singular and plural
          2. past progressive: wasn’t + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                          weren’t + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. past perfect: hadn’t + past participle ¬for all persons, singular and plural
            4. past perfect progressive: hadn’t + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for all persons
         

To form negative statements in the simple past,
1. you have to break the past tense form of the verb in two:  
    spoke=‘did’ + base verb¬ did + speak.  For the other tenses, the auxiliary verbs: ‘was’,
               ‘were’, ‘had’ are already available.
2. Attach n’t to the auxiliary verbs (did, was, were, had) or write not separately after the auxiliary verbs:
             did not, was not, were not , had not

4.29 past tense forms in negative statement sentences—active voice

regular verbs

                                                    past tense forms
   Person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
 first        singular
               plural       
I didn’t talk
We didn’t talk
I wasn’t talking
We weren’t talking
I hadn’t talked
We hadn’t talked
I hadn’t been talking
We hadn’t been talking
second   singular
               plural
You didn’t talk
You didn’t talk
You weren’t talking
You weren’t talking
You hadn’t talked
You hadn’t talked
You hadn’t been talking
You hadn’t been talking
third      singular


              plural  
He didn’t talk
She didn’t talk
It didn’t talk  
They didn’t talk
He wasn’t talking
She wasn’t talking
It wasn’t talking
They weren’t talking
He hadn’t talked
She hadn’t talked
It hadn’t talked
They hadn’t talked
He hadn’t been talking
She hadn’t been talking
It hadn’t been talking
They hadn’t been talking

Note: The forms for the meaning of negation:
          1. simple past: didn’t + base verb ¬ for all persons, singular and plural
          2. past progressive: wasn’t + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                          weren’t + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. past perfect: hadn’t + past participle ¬for all persons, singular and plural
            4. past perfect progressive: hadn’t + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for all persons
To form negative statements in the simple past,
1. you have to break the past tense form of the verb in two:  
      spoke=‘did’ + base verb¬ did + speak.  For the other tenses, the auxiliary verbs: ‘was’,
               ‘were’, ‘had’ are already available.
2. Attach n’t to the auxiliary verbs (did, was, were, had) or write not separately after the auxiliary verbs:
             did not, was not, were not , had not

4.30 past tense forms in negative statement sentences—active voice 

‘State’ verbs: ‘Be’      

 
                                  past tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
I wasn’t a teacher.
We weren’t teachers.
I hadn’t been a teacher.
We hadn’t been teachers.
second singular
             plural
You weren’t a teacher.
You weren’t  teachers.
You hadn’t been a teacher.
You hadn’t been teachers.
third    singular

            plural  
He wasn’t a teacher.
She wasn’t a teacher.
They weren’t teachers.
He hadn’t been a teacher.
She hadn’t been a teacher.
They hadn’t been teachers.

Note: 1. ‘was’, ‘were’ and ‘been’ are derived from the main verb ‘be’.
            2. Use ‘was’ with ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                Use ‘were’ with ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          3. Attach n’t  to ‘was’, ‘were’ and ‘had’. Or write not after ‘was’, ‘were’ and ‘had’.
            4. We don’t use ‘be’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

4.31 past tense forms in negative statement sentences—active voice

 ‘State’ verb: ‘Have’

 
                              past tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
I didn’t have a car.
We didn’t have cars.
I hadn’t had a car.
We hadn’t had cars.
second singular
             plural
You didn’t have a car.
You didn’t have cars.
You hadn’t had a car.
You hadn’t had cars.
third    singular

            plural  
He didn’t have a car.
She didn’t have a car.
They didn’t have cars.
He hadn’t had a car.
She hadn’t had a car.
They hadn’t had cars.

Note: Remember that ‘didn’t + have’ and ‘had had’ are common for first, second and third persons,    
            singular and plural.
          Divide ‘had’ in two: did + have.
           Attach n’t to ‘did’ and ‘had’. Or write not after ‘did’ and ‘had’. 

4.32 past tense forms in question sentences—active voice
 Irregular verbs

                                                  past tense forms
   Person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural       
Did I speak?
Did We speak?
Was I speaking?
Were we speaking?
 Had I spoken?
 Had we spoken?
Had I been speaking?
Had we been speaking?

second   singular
               plural
Did you speak?
Did you speak?
Were you speaking?
Were you speaking
Had you spoken?
Had you spoken?
Had you been speaking?
Had you been speaking?

third      singular


              plural  
Did he speak?
Did She speak?
Did it speak?  
Did they speak?
Was he speaking?
Was she speaking
Was it speaking?
Were they speaking?
Had he spoken?
Had she spoken?
Had it spoken?
Had they spoken?
Had he been speaking?
Had she been speaking?
Had it been speaking?
Had they been speaking?


Note: Affirmative sentence statements (4.24) are changed into affirmative question statements by putting the subject in between the verbs in the following ways:

          1. simple past: did + subject + base verb ¬ for all persons, singular and plural   

                2. past progressive: was + subject + -ing to the verbs ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’

                                      were + subject + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. past perfect: had + subject + past participle ¬ for all persons, singular and plural
              4. past perfect progressive: had + subject + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for all persons

          To form questions in the simple past, you have to break the past tense form of the verb into two:  
            ‘did’ + base verb = spoke ¬ did + speak.  For the other tenses, the auxiliary verbs: ‘was’,
            ‘were’, ‘had’ are already available.

4.33 past tense forms in question sentences—active voice

regular verbs               

                                                past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural       
Did I talk?
Did we talk?
Was I talking?
Were we talking?
Had I talked?
Had we talked?
Had I been talking?
Had we been talking?

second   singular
               plural
Did you talk?
Did you talk?
Were you talking?
Were you talking?
Had you talked?
Had you talked?
Had you been talking?
Had you been talking?

third      singular


              plural  
Did he talk?
Did she talk?
Did it talk?  
Did they talk?
Was he talking?
Was she talking?
Was it talking?
Were they talking?
Had he had talked?
Had she talked?
Had it talked?
Had they talked?
Had he been talking?
Had she been talking?
Had it been talking?
Had they been talking?


Note: Affirmative sentence statements are changed into affirmative question

          statements by putting the subject in between the verbs in the following ways:

          1. simple past: did + subject + base verb ¬ for all persons, singular and plural   

          2. past progressive: was + subject + -ing to the verbs ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’

                                      were + subject + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          3. past perfect: had + subject + past participle ¬ for all persons, singular and plural
            4. past perfect progressive: had + subject + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for all persons

          To form questions in the simple past, you have to break the past tense form of the verb into two:  
            ‘did’ + base verb = spoke ¬ did + talk.  For the other tenses, the auxiliary verbs: ‘was’,
            ‘were’, ‘had’ are already available.

         

4.34 past tense forms in question sentences—active voice

 

‘State’ verb: ‘Be’

 
                              past tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
Was I a teacher?
Were we teachers?
Had I been a teacher?
Had we been teachers?
second singular
             plural
Were you a teacher?
Were you teachers?
Had you been a teacher?
Had you been teachers?
third    singular

            plural   
Was he a teacher?
Was she a teacher?
Were they teachers?
Had he been a teacher?
Had she been a teacher?
Had they been teachers?

Note: 1. ‘was’, ‘were’ and ‘been’ are derived from the main verb ‘be’.
            2. Use ‘was’ before ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’.
                Use ‘were’ before ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’.
                Use subject between ‘had’ and ‘been’ for all persons.
            3. Past perfect tense form of ‘was’ is ‘had been’.
            4. We don’t use ‘be’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

4.35 past tense forms in question sentences—active voice

'State’ verb: ‘have’

 
                              past tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
Did I have a car?
Did we have cars?
Had I had a car?
Had we had cars?
second singular
             plural
Did you have a car?
Did you have cars?
Had you had a car?
Had you had cars?
third    singular

            plural  
Did he have a car?
Did she have a car.
Did they have cars?
Had he had a car?
Had she had a car?
Had they had cars?

Note: simple past : ‘had’ is divided into ‘did’ + ‘have’ and the subject is put in between these two.

          past perfect:  The subject is put in between ‘had had’.
          The main verb ‘be’ is not used in the progressive tenses.

4.36 past tense forms in negative question sentences—active voice
 Irregular verbs

                                                         past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
plural       

Didn’t  I speak?
Didn’t we speak?

Wasn’t  I speaking?
Weren’t we speaking?

Hadn’t  I spoken?
Hadn’t we spoken?

Hadn’t  I been speaking?
Hadn’t  we been speaking?

second   singular

plural

Didn’t  you speak?
Didn’t  you speak?

Weren’t  you speaking?
Weren’t  you speaking?

Hadn’t  you spoken?

Hadn’t  you spoken?

Hadn’t  you been speaking?
Hadn’t  you been speaking?

third      singular


 plural  

Didn’t  he speak?
Didn’t she speak?
Didn’t it speak?  
Didn’t they speak?

Wasn’t  he speaking?
Wasn’t  she speaking
Wasn’t  it speaking?
Weren’t they speaking?

Hadn’t  he spoken?
Hadn’t  she spoken?
Hadn’t  it spoken?
Hadn’t  they spoken?

Hadn’t  he been speaking?
Hadn’t  she been speaking?
Hadn’t it been speaking?
Hadn’t  they been speaking?


Note: Negative sentence statements become negative questions statements by
          attaching ‘n’t’ to auxiliary verbs in the following ways:

          1. simple past: didn’t + subject + base verb ¬ for all persons, singular and plural   

                 2. past progressive: wasn’t + subject + -ing to the verbs ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’

                                      weren’t + subject + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
                 3. past perfect: hadn’t + subject + past participle ¬ for all persons, singular and plural
                 4. past perfect progressive: hadn’t + subject + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for all persons
                      and placing the subject in between the auxiliary and the base verb.
See 4.32. 


4.37 past tense forms in negative question sentences—active voice

regular verbs

                                                        past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural       
Didn’t  I talk?
Didn’t  we talk?
Wasn’t  I talking?
Weren’t we talking?
Hadn’t  I talked?
Hadn’t we talked?
Hadn’t  I been talking?
Hadn’t  we been talking?
second   singular
               plural
Didn’t  you talk?
Didn’t you talk?
Weren’t  you talking?
Weren’t you talking?
Hadn’t  you talked?
Hadn’t you talked?
Hadn’t  you been talking?
Hadn’t  you been talking?

third      singular


              plural  
Didn’t  he talk?
Didn’t  she talk?
Didn’t  it talk?  
Didn’t  they talk?
Wasn’t  he talking?
Wasn’t  she talking?
Wasn’t  it talking?
Weren’t they talking?
Hadn’t  he talked?
Hadn’t she talked?
Hadn’t it talked?
Hadn’t  they talked?
Hadn’t  he been talking?
Hadn’t  she been talking?
Had ‘t  it been talking?
Hadn’t  they been talking?


Note: Negative sentence statements become negative questions statements by attaching ‘n’t’ to auxiliary verbs in the following ways:

          1. simple past: didn’t + subject + base verb ¬ for all persons, singular and plural   

          2. past progressive: wasn’t + subject + -ing to the verbs ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’

                                      weren’t + subject + -ing to the verb ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          3. past perfect: hadn’t + subject + past participle ¬ for all persons, singular and plural
            4. past perfect progressive: hadn’t + subject + been + -ing to the verb ¬ for all persons
          and placing the subject between the auxiliary and the base verb.

 4.38 past tense forms in negative question sentences—active voice

 ‘State’ verb: ‘Be
 
                              past tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
Wasn’t I a teacher?
Weren’t we teachers?
Hadn’t I been a teacher?
Hadn’t we been  teachers?
second singular
             plural
Weren’t you a teacher?
Weren’t you teachers?
Hadn’t you been a teacher?
Hadn’t you been  teachers?
third    singular

            plural  
Wasn’t he a teacher?
Wasn’t she a teacher?
Weren’t they teachers?
Hadn’t he been a teacher?
Hadn’t she been a teacher?
Hadn’t they been teachers?

Note: 1. ‘was’, ‘were’ and ‘been’ are derived from the main verb ‘be’.
            2. Use ‘was’ before ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’.
                Use ‘were’ before ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’.
                Use subject between ‘had’ and ‘been’ for all persons.
            3. Attach n’t to ‘was’, ‘were’ and ‘had’. Or  write not after the subject. 
            3. We don’t use ‘be’ in ‘progressive’ tenses.

 4.39 past tense forms in question sentences—active voice

 ‘State’ verb: ‘have’

 
                              past tense forms
   person
    simple
      perfect
first      singular
             plural       
Didn’t I have a car?
Didn’t we have cars?
Hadn’t I had a car?
Hadn’t we had cars?
second singular
             plural
Didn’t you have a car?
Didn’t you have cars?
Hadn’t you had a car?
Hadn’t you had cars?
third    singular

            plural  
Didn’t he have a car?
Didn’t she have a car.
Didn’t they have cars?
Hadn’t he had a car?
Hadn’t she had a car?
Hadn’t they had cars?

Note: simple past: ‘had’ is divided into ‘did’ + ‘have’ and the subject is put in between these two.

            past perfect:  The subject is put in between ‘had had’.
            The negative n’t is added to ‘did’ and ‘had’. Or write not after the subject.
            The main verb ‘be’ is not used in the progressive tenses.
________________________________________________________________________        

You’ve seen how we use the past tense forms of irregular and regular verbs in affirmative, negative and question sentences in active voice. Now you’ll see how we use the past tense forms of irregular and regular verbs in affirmative, negative and question sentences in passive voice.

Don’t worry now about what active and passive voices are. You’ll see what they are and to what purpose they are used in the section on ‘transformation of sentences’.  Now, just learn the structure of the passive voice.

4.40 past tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—passive voice

Irregular verbs

                                                        past tense forms
   person
Simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect  progressive    
first        singular
               plural       
I was hit
We were hit
I was being hit
We were being hit
I had been hit
We had been hit
I had been being hit
       --------------
second   singular                          
              plural
You were hit
You were hit
You were being hit
You were being hit
You had been hit
You had been hit
        -------------  
        ------------
third     singular


             plural  
He was hit
She was hit
It was hit
They were hit
He was being hit
She was being hit
It was being hit
They were being hit
He had been hit
She had been hit
It had been hit
They had been hit
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
   
Note: This table shows you how to use past tense forms of irregular verbs in passive
          voice:                        
          simple past:   auxiliary verb + past participle (p.p.) of  verb
                                           1                      2                                                      
                                I was hit.
                                    1   2
         
             past progressive: auxiliary verb +  being + past participle
                                               1                    2                3
                                I was being hit
                                    1      2     3
             past perfect: auxiliary verb +  been + past participle
                                       1                    2                3
                               I had been hit
                                      1    2     3  
             past perfect progressive: auxiliary verb + been + being + past participle
                                                            1                2          3                   4
                               I had been being hit
                                  1     2       3     4
Note: Past perfect progressive tense form in passive voice is most rare (almost never used) in speech and
            writing.

4.41 past tense forms in affirmative statement sentences—passive voice

regular verbs

                                                    past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
 perfect progressive
first     singular
             
             plural       
I was watched

We were watched
I was being watched

We were being watched
I had been watched

We had been watched
I had been being watched
         ------------
second  singular
             
            
               plural

You were watched


You were watched

You were being watched


You were being watched

You had been watched

You had been watched
         ------------

      

          -----------
third   singular


            
            plural  
He was watched
She was watched

It was watched  
They were watched
He was being watched
She was being watched

It was being watched
They were being watched
He had been watched
She had been watched
It had been watched
They had been watched
          -----------
          -----------
          ----------
          ----------


Note: This table shows you how to use past tense forms of irregular verbs in passive
          voice:                        
          simple past:   auxiliary verb + past participle (p.p.) of  verb
                                           1                      2                                                     
                                I was watched.
                                    1       2

          past progressive: auxiliary verb +  being + past participle
                                               1                    2                3
                                I was being watched.
                                    1      2        3
          past perfect: auxiliary verb +  been + past participle
                                       1                    2                3
                               I had been watched.
                                      1    2        3  
          past perfect progressive: auxiliary verb + been + being + past participle
                                                            1                2          3                   4
                               I had been being watched.
                                  1     2       3          4
Note: Past perfect progressive tense form in passive voice is most rare (almost never used) in speech and
            writing.

4.42 past tense forms in negative statement sentences—passive voice
Irregular verbs

                                                        present tense forms
   person
Simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive    
first        singular
               plural       
I wasn’t hit
We weren’t hit
I wasn’t being hit
We weren’t being hit
I hadn’t been hit
We hadn’t been hit
I hadn’t been being hit
       --------------
second   singular                         
              plural
You weren’t hit
You weren’t hit
You weren’t being hit
You weren’t being hit
You hadn’t been hit
You hadn’t been hit
        -------------  
        ------------
third     singular


             plural  
He wasn’t hit
She wasn’t hit
It wasn’t hit
They weren’t hit
He wasn’t being hit
She wasn’t being hit
It wasn’t being hit
They weren’t being hit
He hadn’t been hit
She hadn’t been hit
It hadn’t been hit
They hadn’t been hit
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
   
Note: The forms for the meaning of negation:
          1. simple past: wasn’t + past participle ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                         weren’t + past participle ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          2. past progressive: wasn’t + being + past participle¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                          weren’t + being + past participle¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. past perfect: hadn’t + been + past participle ¬for all persons, singular and plural
            4. past perfect progressive: hadn’t + been + past participle ¬ for all persons
            You may also use the negative not after the subject.
Past perfect progressive tense form in passive voice is most rare (almost never used) in speech and wtiting.


4.43 past tense forms in negative statement sentences—passive voice
regular verbs
                                                    past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
   perfect progressive
first    
           singular
             
           plural       

I wasn’t watched

We weren’t watched

I wasn’t being watched

We weren’t being watched

I hadn’t been watched

We hadn’t been watched

I hadn’t been being watched
         ------------
second             singular            
               plural

You weren’t watched
You weren’t watched

You weren’t being watched
You weren’t being watched

You hadn’t been watched
You hadn’t been watched
     
          ------------   
        
           -----------
third   singular


            
          

plural  

He wasn’t watched
She wasn’t watched
It wasn’t watched 

They weren’t watched

He wasn’t being watched
She wasn’t being watched
It wasn’t being watched

They weren’t being watched

He hadn’t been watched
She hadn’t been watched
It hadn’t been watched
They hadn’t been watched
       
         -----------
    
         -----------
    
    
          ----------
    
           ----------

Note: The forms for the meaning of negation:
          1. simple past: wasn’t + past participle ¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                         weren’t + past participle ¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
          2. past progressive: wasn’t + being + past participle¬ for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘it’
                                          weren’t + being + past participle¬ for ‘we’, ‘you’ and ‘they’
           3. past perfect: hadn’t + been + past participle ¬for all persons, singular and plural
            4. past perfect progressive: hadn’t + been + past participle ¬ for all persons

Past perfect progressive tense form in passive voice is most rare (almost never used) in speech and

4.44 past tense forms in question sentences—passive voice
irregular verbs

                                                        past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular
               plural       
Was I hit?
Were we hit?
Was I being  hit?
Were we being hit?
Had  I been hit?
Had  we been hit?
Had  I been being hit?
       --------------
second   singular                         
              plural
Were you hit?
Were you hit?
Were  you being hit?
Were  you being hit?
Had  you been hit?
Had you been hit?
        -------------  
        ------------
third     singular


             plural  
Was he hit?
Was she hit?
Was it hit?  
They were hit?
Was he being hit?
Was  she being hit?
Was  it being hit?
Were they being hit?
Had he been hit?
Had  she been hit?
Had  it been hit?
Had  they been hit?
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
   
Note: The subject is placed in between auxiliary (helping) verb and the past participle:
            1. simple past           : was + subject + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                       were + subject + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            2. past progressive  : was + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                               were + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            3. past perfect          : had + subject + been + past participle¬for all persons    
            4. past perfect progressive: This structure is most rare (almost never used) in speech or writing.

4.45 past tense forms in question sentences—passive voice
regular verbs
                                                    past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
   perfect progressive
first    singular
             
             plural       
Was I watched?

Were we watched?
Was I being watched?

Were we being watched?
Had I been watched?

Had we been watched?
Had I been being watched?
         ------------
second  singular
             
            
               plural

Were you
watched?  

Were you 
atched?

Were you being watched?

Were you being watched?

Had you been watched?

Had you been watched?
      
         ------------

      

          -----------
third   singular


            
          
plural  

Was he watched?

Was she watched?

Was it watched?  
Were they  watched?

He was being watched?

She was being watched?

Was it being watched?
Were they being watched?

Had he been watched?
Had she been watched?
Had it been watched?
Had they been watched?
        
           -----------

          -----------
          
           ----------
           ----------

 Note: The subject is placed in between auxiliary (helping) verb and the past participle:
            1. simple past           : was + subject + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                       were + subject + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            2. past progressive  : was + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                               were + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            3. past perfect          : had + subject + been + past participle¬for all persons    
            4. past perfect progressive: This structure is most rare (almost never used) in speech or writing.

 

4.46 past tense forms in negative question sentences—passive voice
Irregular verbs
                                                        past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
perfect progressive
first        singular            
               plural       
Wasn’t I hit?
Weren’t we hit?
Wasn’t I being  hit?
Weren’t we being hit?
Hadn’t I been hit?
Hadn’t we been hit?
Hadn’t I been being hit?   
        --------------
second   singular                         
            
               plural
Weren’t you hit?
Weren’t you hit?
Weren’t you being hit?
Weren’t you being hit?
Hadn’t you been hit?
Hadn’t you been hit?
        -------------      
         ------------
third     singular


             plural  
Wasn’t he hit?
Wasn’t she hit?
Wasn’t it hit?  
Weren’t they hit?
Wasn’t he being hit?
Wasn’t she being hit?
Wasn’t it being hit?
Weren’t they being hit?
Hadn’t he been hit?
Hadn’t she been hit?
Hadn’t it been hit?
Hadn’t they been hit?
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
         -----------
   

Note: The subject is placed in between auxiliary (helping) verb and the past participle:
            1. simple past           : wasn’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                       weren’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            2. past progressive  : wasn’t + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                               weren’t + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            3. past perfect          : hadn’t + subject + been + past participle¬for all persons    
            4. past perfect progressive: This structure is most rare (almost never used) in speech or writing.

4.47 past tense forms in negative question sentences—passive voice
regular verbs
                                                    past tense forms
   person
simple
  progressive
perfect
   perfect progressive
first  singular
             
          plural       
Wasn’t I watched?

Weren’t we watched?
Wasn’t I being watched?
Weren’t we being watched?
Hadn’t I been watched?
Hadn’t we been watched?
Hadn’t I been being watched?
       
        ------------
second  singular
             
             
               plural

Weren’t you
watched?  

Weren’t you 
watched?

Weren’t you being watched?

Weren’t you being watched?

Hadn’t you been watched?

Hadn’t you been watched?
      
         ------------

      

          -----------
third   singular


            
          



plural  

Wasn’t he watched?

Wasn’t she watched?

Wasn’t it watched?  

Weren’t they  watched?

Wasn’t he being watched?

Wasn’t she being watched?

Wasn’t it being watched?
Were they being watched?

Hadn’t he been watched?

Hadn’t she been watched?

Hadn’t it been watched?
Hadn’t they been watched?
        
           -----------
        

           -----------
         
     
            ----------
      
            ----------

Note: The subject is placed in between auxiliary (helping) verb and the past participle:
            1. simple past           : wasn’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                       weren’t + subject + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            2. past progressive  : wasn’t + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’
                                               weren’t + subject + being + past participle¬for ‘we’, ‘you’, ‘they’
            3. past perfect          : hadn’t + subject + been + past participle¬for all persons    
            4. past perfect progressive: This structure is most rare (almost never used) in speech or writing.

special Note:
4.48 ‘State’ verbs (‘be’ and ‘have’) are not used in the passive voice.

__________________________________________________________________________