Sunday, 9 February 2014

Active Listening--guide and exercises

Active Listening 


1. Barriers to communication
2. Noise
3. Classification of barriers
4. Types of Listening
5. Active versus Passive Listening                              
6. Traits of a good listener
7. Implications of Effective Listening 


1. Barriers to Communication
2. Noise                                   
3. Classification of barriers

We all believe we communicate well. We all believe we know the art of communicating. We are confident we have no difficulty (in) communicating. However, if we paused for a moment and thought about an instance or two, we might just begin to wonder.

1. Raghu : Hi, Sundar!
    Somu : …….
    Raghu  : Go to hell!

2. Rani : How is your mother today?
    Devi : Much better.
    Rani : I want to visit her. I’ll join you
               this evening.
    Devi : She’ll be happy. But my grandpa is
               arriving. I have to get supper ready.
    Rani: Okay. When are visitors allowed?

3. Joseph: Are you too busy, John?
    John   : I’m completing  Experiment 3 in the
                 Chemistry Lab Record.
    Joseph: Oh.
    John   : You need help? [Joseph nods] Okay.
                 Tell me.
    Joseph: Thanksda*. I don’t…         * ‘da’ is a suffix in Thamizh used between friends.


   4.  Raju : [is answering an exercise on tenses,
                   has his pen between his teeth,
                   looking hard at the exercise sheet
                   (as if that would somehow locate    
                     the answer for him!)]
        Raghu: Move over. Let me help you.
        Raju  : [moves away without a word]
        Raghu: [angrily] There’s always a next
                     time, my friend!
   
5. Sales Manager    : Sir, I need your
                                  permission to attend my
                                  cousin’s Shashtiaptapurthi.
    General Manager: Permission? Don’t you have any casual leave left?
    Sales Manager    : No, sir.
    General Manager: You’re a senior manager. You shouldn’t have mismanaged your
                                   leave account. How could you have planned it so badly?
    Sales Manager    :???


Shashtiaptapurthi  is a joyous occasion for sons and daughters when they get their parents to re-perform their marriage on completion of 60 years of age of their father. The father re-marries the mother by tying the knot of a yellow thick thread with an emblem in gold around her neck.     

6.  Floor
     Supervisor: Babu, Can’t you ever
      (accusingly)  do a thing right?
Babu             : Sir, I was only mending
( taken unawares)
F.M.              : You mean you were fiddling.
(glaring)        
Babu             : Sir, …..
(clearly upset)
F. M.             : Don’t argue with me.
(cutting him off)
Babu             : No, sir. Let me…..
(firmly)
F.M.              : How dare you talk back to me?
(threatening)     
Babu           : Yes, sir. I mean, no sir. (!)
(bewildered)

A few more instance of communication. Read on                                                                                          
                            
7.
I had once submitted an article for consideration for publication in a magazine to be brought out by the Ministry of Education in an African country for which I was working on a contract. The article depicted the feelings of a frustrated teacher and how he viewed his students, his colleagues and his principal.
A top ministry official was very angry and threatened to cancel my contract. His accusations implied that I was referring to the local students and principal and that my article was an affront to his nation and race.

I was perplexed because I thought that my article would be seen as no more than a literary piece based on imagination. I was naïve enough to expect objective assessment of my article. Instead, the officer perceived me not as a writer but as a foreigner who in his perception had no right to comment or say the things that I said in the article.

A young fresh teacher entered his class for the first time. While lecturing, he observed two women students chatting and smiling while looking at him on and off, and he concluded that they were not only disrespectful but mocking at him and that they were not behaving as women students should. When he warned them and put them in their places, one woman student got up to say that she and her friend had not done anything to deserve the warning; the teacher became enraged at this audacity and punished them in as many ways as he could think of.                                                                       

Communication in dialogues 2 and 3 goes on smoothly whereas in 1,4,5 and 6 you notice
barriers to communication, don’t you? The two incidents in 7 and 8 are two clear instances where barriers to communication are working effectively!

 Or think of some other ordinary events. Like, for instance, ordering a coffee. I might order a coffee, drink it, pay for it and leave the hotel. Or the server might come late to receive the order or bring the coffee late. Based on my perceptions and attitudes, I might draw inferences that are not there in the server’s behaviour, and what might follow could be unpleasant for the server and me as well. Let’s say somebody knocks on the door, I take a little time to reach the door, in the meantime, the knock gets longer and louder. I might not make much of the longer and the louder knock, open the door, speak to the person. Or influenced by my perceptions of how a person knocking at a door should behave, I might misinterpret the event and there could be trouble! And the guest may have his ideas of me for not answering the door immediately!

Barriers
What are these barriers?
These barriers can be classified as ‘intrapersonal’, ‘interpersonal’ and ‘organizational’.
Intrapersonal refers to barriers coming from within an individual. Interpersonal refers to barriers arising from actions or no actions between individuals. Organizational combines intrapersonal and interpersonal barriers in the place of work.

What are barriers after all?
Obstacles or obstructions that prevent genuine communication.

Barriers are of two kinds:
1. internal [occurring within an individual and between individuals] 
2. external [environment outside the individuals]

1. Internal Barriers
Communicating or not communicating depends on assumptions and expectations. In the eight samples presented in the previous pages are examples of assumptions and expectations.

In sample 1, Raghu considers Somu his friend [assumption], so greets him and expects response from Somu  but Somu doesn’t respond [probably he assumes, for whatever reason, Raghu is not his friend]. Raghu’s expectation is not fulfilled, he gets upset and says something unpleasant. The barriers are assumptions and nonfulfillment of expectations.

In sample 4, Raghu tries to help Raju but Raju doesn’t accept it. The barriers here are Raghu’s assumption that Raju would want help and Raju is perhaps too proud to accept help from anyone, even from Raghu who may be his friend.

In sample 5, the barrier is the authoritative attitude and tone of the GM. He could’ve refused permission without being bossy. The sales manager assumes that exhausting casual leave and asking for a day’s permission is no crime. But the GM thinks so because he believes that no subordinate should exhaust casual leave early.

In sample 6, the barriers are [1] the floor supervisor’s assumption that a worker should observe silence, respond only by accepting his boss’s reprimand, and that he is haughty if he tries to respond [2] Babu’s assumption that he is entitled to explaining his position and his explanation is not arguing with his boss on equal terms. 

In sample 7, the barriers are the perceptions and the resultant assumptions and expectations. Because the article portrayed a negative picture, the ministry official saw the article through his perception of who a foreigner should be and interpreted the article as an offence. Because I expected the ‘educated’ ministry official to look at the article as no more than an imaginary piece. Both of us failed to acknowledge that there could be difference between intended and perceived meanings irrespective of whether or not we were ‘educated’.

In sample 8, the teacher’s perceptions of how a woman student should behave in a classroom and the student’s perception of how a teacher should perceive her behaviour stand as barriers. The teacher felt he was superior and his superiority meant that no student should question his interpretation. The women students should not have thought it their right to chat and smile while looking at the teacher and expect the teacher to accept their behaviour.  

Perception is how we see and understand (a view, an image, idea or understanding of) people, places, things. It leads to assumptions. These assumptions lead to expectations.

Now the question is: how is perception formed?


Perception is formed through self-image and images of others, relationship between the perceiver and the other person(s) and health of the perceiver. Both images get shaped by the  
language  and body language employed, the kind of stereotyping in the mind, cultural influences, physical characteristics and of course silence.                                            

In other words, barriers arise from ‘intrapersonal’ and ‘interpersonal’ behaviour like ‘wrong assumptions’, ‘varied perceptions’, ‘various backgrounds’, ‘wrong inferences’, ‘prejudices’, ‘complexes –superior/inferior’, ‘lack in language use’, ‘mismatch between verbal and nonverbal communication’, ‘emotions, ‘being selective in focusing only on specific portions of message’, ‘cultural variations’.

Self-image
This refers to
  what you are, who you are as you grow out of your experience
    [your abilities, attitudes, values, emotions, feelings, needs, memory, thinking etc.]

In other words, you think of yourself as a superior, modest or inferior person. Non-English medium students, for instance, may behave confidently even if they are unable to use English as a medium.

Image of others
This refers to the pictures you have of other people as superior, modest or inferior persons.
You may think well or ill of their language abilities, of their body language; you may or may not like their physical appearance [height, weight, colour, hair etc.], dress, perceptions, attitudes.  ‘he doesn’t like me’, ‘she looks pretty’, ‘he looks aggressive’, ‘she is so selfish’, ‘he thinks he’s an expert on women’, ‘she thinks she can teach me a thing or two’, ‘oh god, what colours does she choose’ are how we think about others.

Health
This refers to physical condition [ill or well], physical ease [comfortable or not], mental disposition [motivation, willingness, confidence, curiosity, concern, fear, doubt and so on].

Relationship between you and others
This refers to the closeness or distance you’ve developed or you’ll develop with people around you.

All these factors impinge on the communicating act every time, every moment favourably or unfavourably. They may become barriers to or support interaction.

2. External Barriers

They are: 1. location       2. noise         3. audience       4. authority

Location: This refers to the climate and the geography of the place of communication.
                ‘Climate’ refers to atmosphere available for communication. If music is
                blaring on one side, if heavy traffic flows on either side of the building, if a           
                politician’s voice amplified, the climate cannot be thought of as congenial to
                communication.
Noise     : It is anything that makes it hard for a communication act to complete, anything
                that interrupts and makes sending or receiving messages. It can be external
                like a noisy restaurant, construction noise outside, music blaring and
                deafening, traffic snarls and the resultant noise, children playing near. Or it can
                be internal such as poor use of language [vocabulary and structure],
                pronunciation, too low or high a volume, delivery speed, distracting
                mannerisms, unpleasant body language.

Audience : This refers to people in the communication scene. They can influence a
                   communication. Presence or absence of one individual or certain individuals,
                   arrival or departure of a person or a group of persons in a communicating
                   situation may change the complexion of the communication. Say, your were
                   about to confide in your friend (leaning close) and somebody walked in,
                   you’d shut up (drawing away). Or you could be prepared to come out with
                   your story once a person was out of earshot. You may wait to pass on
                   information until someone you wanted to be present arrived. 

Authority : This is part of organizational barriers. Exercise of excessive authority
                   prevents open and frank and encourages pretence and routine. Again, a
                   management may have so many channels that communication can get
                   distorted. Communication in a team can become difficult if it consists of
                   people believing in different value systems. And there may be too many
                   messages to receive and hence there may be difficulty in comprehension.

                             
Listening 

Definition

Listening is sustained effort to receive sounds and make meaning.

importance of listening
Can you recollect what happens in our waking moments? If we think back on what happens in a day, we’ll find to our surprise that we speak less and listen more. If only for this reason, we should develop the ability and the habit of listening carefully. Moreover, according to a study mentioned by Stanton “……..the white-collar worker spends 45 percent of all communicating time listening….” ( p.23, N. Stanton’s Communication, Macmillan, 1990). And if we don’t listen to others, we cannot expect others to listen to us.

Moreover, Listening leads to thinking, thinking to analyzing, analyzing to accepting, modifying, rejecting the ideas, the thoughts, the concepts that speakers project.

Need for listening
1.  respect the speaker so that he will respect you when you speak
2.  receive information, new or old
3.  understand the message
4.  respond to the message [become the speaker]
5.  give information, new or old
6.  show emotions
7.  receive instruction/knowledge/wisdom
8.  benefit from the experience of others
9.  indicate respect/affection/love/admiration for the speaker
10.show politeness and courtesy to the speaker

Barriers to listening
In ideal conversations, someone speaks, the other listens, the other speaks, the someone listens. But does listening go on all the time? The answer is a ‘no. Then we might ask: what makes us not listen? The answer is that there are certain barriers preventing us from listening all the time.

What are these barriers?
Sometimes we are unable to listen. Some other times, we avoid listening. Still, some other times, we refuse to listen.

we are unable to listen

If we are unable to listen, it’s not because we are deaf. Physically we may not be deaf. Sounds may reach our ears but they don’t reach our brain for it to understand. Because we’re preoccupied. In other words, our mind is already busy with something[s] or some other person[s]—problems, questions, expectations, emotions, sentiments and so on. We’re so busy thinking about these things, we’re so busy analyzing them, trying to understand, trying to anticipate, trying to solve.

            Sekar: I don’t know why these things
                        always happen to me. People
                        misunderstand me. The other day
                        I met Jabbar. He was angry…..
                        Raj, are you listening?

             Raj   : Sorry, Sekar. I was thinking of
                         tomorrow’s interview. You were
                         saying?  

we avoid listening

If we avoid listening, it’s because someone is not worth listening to.  Because we think we know better than the other person. What’s the meaning of ‘not worth’? What we are hearing may not be important enough to pay attention to or may not affect us immediately or seriously to worry about. Or because the person may be below us in status or position. The person may be younger to us in age or may be a subordinate, may be uneducated or poor or a stranger.
we refuse to listen

If we refuse to listen, it’s because we’re under the influence of prejudices or complexes.

complexes
We may feel inferior or superior to others; these complexes are the result of how we see ourselves in comparison with others around us.

prejudice
Prejudice can be in favour of someone or against someone. We’re generally prejudiced in our favour. In other words, we see ourselves as positive, helpful, favourable or good. We’re generally prejudiced in favour of some relatives, friends because we see them as positive or good towards us, helpful or favourable to us and what we do. We’re generally prejudiced against some relatives and friends because we see them as negative, unhelpful, bad or even evil. In other words, we like some and we dislike some. Therefore, we refuse to listen to those whom we dislike for some reason or other.

The reasons for the dislike can be hearsay or personal. We dislike some because we readily believe or accept what our relatives or friends whom we like may say about them. This is known as hearsay; we accept this report as true, and refuse to listen to them. We dislike some because we have had bad or bitter experiences with them.

So, we don’t pay attention to what some people say to us or when they talk to us because
               
                      1. we’re preoccupied with our own thoughts
                      2. we assume we have nothing to gain
                      3. we’re prejudiced against them.

Need for training 
Listening is a neglected skill and taken for granted. We may all feel that as long as we are able to hear, we can also listen. “…..it seems to be assumed that so long as we don’t have a physical hearing deficiency, we are automatically capable of listening from the day we are born and do not therefore need to be taught.”(p.24, ibid)

There’s a lot of stress on learning to speak, on conducting courses to train how to speak to different purposes but there’s hardly any awareness about listening efficiently and effectively.

Nonetheless, in our value system we don’t give importance to listening. We as listeners expect speakers to behave responsibly, to speak in such a way that it becomes an invitation for us to listen to them.

But do we behave responsibly?  We think it’s our right to listen or not listen. We feel that speakers cannot blame us if we don’t listen because listening is not obligatory. They may take the initiative on their own to speak to us or they might have been invited by our higher-ups. We didn’t ask them to speak to us, did we now? Listeners have the freedom to do anything but listen.  

Shall we now do something about this training?
This training consists of some useful information about listening and several exercises where you’ll exercise your active listening skills sufficiently enough for it to become part of your personality.

4. Types of Listening  
Different purposes require different types of listening. We may be listening to
         • receive information needed for a particular action
            [informative/comprehending listening]
         • improve relationship with a particular individual
            [relationship /empathetic listening ]
         • show appreciation for a person or an activity
            [appreciative listening]
         • evaluate an individual or an activity critically
            [critical listening]   
         • discriminate between things or people.
            [discriminative listening] 

Informative listening [comprehending listening]

Here we as listeners are interested in understanding the messages we receive from others. Our intention is to decode the encoded message in such a way that we receive the same message that the sender [encoder] sent.

This is the most common listening activity that goes in all areas of our lives. Much of our knowledge and wisdom comes from this activity. For instance, we listen to lectures or instructions from our teachers. In our workplace, we listen to instructions, briefings, reports, explanations, new procedures, policies or practices.

Mastery of this skill depends on our
             • knowledge of the medium senders use
             • concentration
             • memory.
The most common medium is a language, say English. The messages [content or subject matter] may be clothed in general English or scientific/technical vocabulary. So we should have a good understanding of such vocabulary and also sentence structures senders use. Non-English medium students studying in colleges where they learn medicine, engineering disciplines, or science disciplines would need to learn and master, as quickly as possible, the technical/scientific vocabulary so that they may not miss information passed on by their faculty.

Concentration is an essential feature of this listening. It is difficult to concentrate on the messages from start to finish. But if we allowed ourselves to be distracted, we might miss some vital information or instruction for which we may have to regret later. Say your boss is giving you oral instructions and you’re thinking of where to go coming weekend or you’re gossiping with your neighbour. You might not be able to carry out the duty given to you and you might have to face the wrath of your superior.

It’s not enough if you have a good command of the medium and the ability to concentrate; your memory should be strong enough to
          recall information accurately
so that you are able to perform tasks successfully.
relationship [empathetic] listening 
This listening enables us to help people or to build/maintain/improve relationship between others and us.

There are three features: attentive, supportive, empathetic.
We pay attention to the speaker by verbal cues: ‘I see’, ‘yes’, ‘I understand’, ‘really?’, ‘uh-huh’ and nonverbal cues: nodding, smiling, frowning, eye contact, tone expressing concern, gentle touching.

We support by patient listening, by expressing confidence in the speaker’s abilities, or by not attempting to advice, not manipulating the speaker, by lending a shoulder to lean on.

We empathize with the speaker by reflecting their feelings and thinking. We enter into the world of the speaker and become one with him. 

appreciative listening
This occurs when you’re enjoying sources of enjoyment such as music, film, radio, comedy, television, and oratory. As listeners, we appreciate [speak highly of] the quality of these sources.

It brings pleasure to us and happiness to musicians, actors, comedians, radio/TV jockeys, orators. It brings pleasure because we see the value of quality in performances; it brings happiness because the performers know that there is a crowd who will gather any time to listen and exhibit their appreciation through verbal and nonverbal mediums.

critical listening
When we apply our intellect and intelligence to analyse objectively and to look for logic, expertise and emotion in a speech, in a dialogue, in a conversation, in a discussion, in a brainstorming, listening is termed as critical.

We are being critical when we say things like, ‘he’s no expert’, ‘she’s excellent’, ‘today he isn’t bowling his best’, ‘they aren’t truly sorry’, ‘we’ve done our best under the circumstances’, ‘what a brave child!’, ‘how can you be so cruel?’, “he’s whipping up unwanted emotions’, ‘how can he miss in the penalty kick?’.

discriminative listening
We’re using discrimination when we are able to detect fine and minute changes that distinguish one thing from another. We are discriminative listeners when we are sensitive to the changes in the speaker’s volume, pitch, tone, rate, stress, when we are able to detect even nuances of communication [meaning difference, speaker intentions], when we are able to identify a sound, among several occurring at once, belonging to a specific machine.
Of course, to be able to do all these, we should have a good professional knowledge of the related field.   

5. Active versus Passive Listening     
Passive listeners just hear the sounds around them. For instance, how many students or teachers can recollect correctly the essentials and the details of a speech given by a chief guest on their annual college day? 

We become passive listeners when we have been made to listen, when the topic is of little interest to us, when we have no idea who the speaker is, when we have nothing better to do, when we don’t like the speaker for some reason. We welcome any distraction like watching through the open window people passing by, mannerisms of the speaker, any invitation for gossip from a neighbour listener, mentally drifting away from the speaker.

Passive listening leads to distortion in communication and results in time getting wasted for both the speaker and the listener.

In contrast, active listeners try their best to make meaning out of the sounds they hear around them. They don’t become victims to distractions, their concentration is total, they take notes, they put down on paper questions for the question hour at the end of the speech/lecture/talk/presentation, they indicate to the speaker that they are attentive by several nonverbal gestures—nodding, smiling, frowning, maintaining eye contact, leaning forward, they come back into the room/hall without delay from refreshments.

Active listening leads to mental satisfaction of having listened to a good speaker, meaningful gathering of thoughts conveyed by the speaker, deriving benefits from the expert talk, strengthening memory, retention and recall skills.   

6. Traits of a good listener
A good listener does not :
      · remain silent, indifferent, mechanical [non-participation]
      · yawn, look elsewhere, respond irrelevantly, read, gossip (engages in small talk
         with neighbours), daydream [negative feedback]
      · act superior, intimidate/become aggressive [pressure through personality]
      · judge/evaluate speaker by appearance, mannerism [use prejudices, assumptions]
      · become preoccupied with own thoughts, assume no gain from listening

A good listener
      · is attentive, involved, respond [encode] [participation]
      · maintains eye contact, smiles, nods, leans forward, frowns [nonverbal]
      · is speaker-oriented [you-oriented, not I-oriented], respects, supports, empathizes,
         admires, appreciates, is objectively critical [positive attitude, behaviour]
      · clarifies doubts by paraphrasing/restating/summarizing with expressions like
                 If I’m not mistaken, you’re saying……… [formal] }[genuine]
                 You mean that…………[non-formal]                      }[listening]
      · during question hour, suggests better techniques, adds to content. [feedback]

7. Effective Listening  
Active listening is effective listening. A good listener is an effective listener.
Tips for effective listening are the same as those that a good listener does.

Reasons for effective listening
1. We seem to assume that as long as we don’t have a physical hearing problem, we are automatically
    capable of listening.
    This is not true.
        
2. Listening is not the same as hearing. When we wait for a bus, when we are traveling on a    
    bus or train, sounds from people or vehicles reach our ears. Do all these sounds reach the  
    brain and does the brain see meaning in them? If we are busy with our own thoughts, that
    is, if our mind is thinking about something or some person important to us, our ears will  
    receive the sounds but our mind will not register them. So hearing is different from
    listening.

What’s the difference?
The difference is as follows:
                        Hearing takes place automatically.
                        That is, we can’t stop hearing unless
                        we are deaf. So hearing is involuntary.

                        Listening does not take place automatically.
                        We have to consciously or knowingly decide
                        to listen. That is, we decide that our mind
                        should receive the sounds and understand
                        what they mean. So listening is voluntary.  
         
3. Listening doesn’t occur all the time someone is speaking to us. 
    By nature, our mind has a very limited ‘attention span’. So we hear,
    listen, hear, listen. Because our mind now and again wanders here
    and there, think of this or that; in other words, our mind doesn’t
    stay with the speaker from beginning to end. We don’t listen
    ‘actively’. Naturally, there will be gaps in receiving the
    communication from the speaker. Such incomplete listening can
    affect our relationship with the speaker negatively.

 4. Again it’s human nature to predict or anticipate what the
     speaker is going to say and, without further listening, to
     complete the thought or the message before the speaker
     completes it. Very often, our completion of the message
     is the same as that of the speaker. However, it’s always
     possible that errors can occur and our completion of the
     thought is different from the speaker’s.
              Guna: I don’t know what’s happening
                         to me. My boss is a pain in the
                         neck. No promotion. The job is
                         boring; I wonder if I should resign….
              Somu: You’ve resigned? You’re a fool.
              Guna: Don’t call me that! I never said
                         I resigned.
              Somu: But you did. I heard you.         
             
      Somu’s mind did not wander but registered information very different from what it
      heard. It connected Guna’s difficulties with ‘resign’. Somu could realize his error or
      the wrong prediction could hurt the relationship.      

 5. The speaker may not meet our expectations. The speech or the talk could be ordinary
     or even boring. We may stop listening and face unpleasant consequences.


8. Implications of effective listening 
Effective listening leads to
     1. gaining understanding, respect, admiration, friendship from others
     2. feeling the pulse of other people: how they think, what they believe in
         how they come to conclusions
     3. gathering knowledge, experience, wisdom from others
     4. experiencing satisfaction, growth, development, happiness.
________________________________________________________________________

Listening Exercises
For all the exercises, the sentences or the paragraphs on which the questions are based are available with the teacher.
The teacher will read them to you or you’ll listen to them on a tape.

• Listen carefully.
• Read the instructions, listen to ‘listening’ statements and passages, read your choices
   and select the correct answer.

Exercises one
Here is a sample for the following exercise.
You’ll hear:
         Sunitha has understood the instructions.
Here you have four choices. You’ve listened to a sentence. Now select that choice
which gives the same meaning as that of the sentence you heard.

a. Sunitha is ready to answer questions.
b. Sunitha answered the questions.
c. Sunitha has no doubt about what she should do now.
d. The instructions were easy to understand.
It’s necessary to remember the question sentence and match the choices with it.
Choice [a] mentions one possible result of the action mentioned in the question.
Choice [b] mentions something that is yet to take place.
Choice [c] expresses the same thought that the question sentence contains.
Choice [d] talks about the ‘easiness’ of the instructions, which only partly agrees with the 
                  question sentence you heard.
So the correct choice is [c].    

Have a paper and a pen ready to select the correct choices. You’ll hear sentences spoken. At the end of every sentence, there will be a pause. During this time, read the choices, select that choice that best paraphrases or expresses the same thought in different words.
Now listen.

1. a. Sam types as fast as I do.
    b. Sam types very fast.
    c. Sam types 120 words per minute.
    d. I type as fast as Sam.


2. a. She served six years.
    b. She served two years.
    c. She came once between the two contracts.
    d. She liked the country.

3. a. The party was a success.
    b. Only half the guests turned up.
    c. Only three-fourths of the guests turned up.
    d. The party was a failure.

4. a. My daughter is a bank officer.
    b. My daughter’s salary is Rs. 2,40,000 a year.
    c. My daughter’s salary is taxable.
    d. My daughter earns 1 lakh and 20,000 a year.

5. a. You had an appointment with the dentist for tomorrow evening.
    b. You see the dentist in the evenings.
    c. I’m reminding you about the appointment with the dentist.
    d. I’m asking you to meet your dentist tomorrow evening.

 6. a. You have a problem with your eyesight.
     b. Why don’t you listen to my advice?
     c. You’d better get your eyes checked.
     d. You did not go to the eye specialist.

7. a. Today is a very unpleasant day.
    b. Today’s weather is not bad.
    c. The weather has always been good.
    d. Today’s weather is the best so far.  

8. a. The talk contained a lot of useful information.
    b. The talk was very boring.
    c. The talk was very exciting.
    d. The talk contained information we already knew.

9. a. Tharini fainted.
    b. Tharini couldn’t kill the snake.
    c. Neither of us could kill the snake.
    d. One of us tried to kill the snake but failed.

10. a. The exercise is good.
      b. The exercise is difficult.
      c. The speaker is questioning the listener’s reaction to the exercise.
      d. The speaker wants to know about the listener’s reaction to the exercise.

Spoken sentences for exercises one
1. I type 40 words per minute. Sam types twice as fast.
2. The contract was for three years. She worked for two contracts.
3. All the guests enjoyed the party.
4. My daughter earns Rs.20,000 per month.
5. You’re seeing the dentist this evening.
6. You should’ve your eyes examined.
7. The weather has never been better.
8. The lecture was very informative.
9. The snake escaped before we could kill it.
10. How do you find the exercise?
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise two
In the first two exercises you listened to sentences and selected sentences from the choices that had a meaning same as those of question sentences. This is known identifying paraphrases.

In the next two exercises, you’ll practise understanding question sentences for their inner meaning or inferences.

Here is an example:
You’ll hear
      I have understood the instructions.

You have the choices:
    a. I’m ready to do the experiment.
    b. I did the experiment.
    c. I have no doubt about what I should do now.
    d. I understood the instructions easily.

Choice [d] talks about the level of understanding which is not implied.
Choice [c] is a restatement, that is, a paraphrase.
Choice [b] is not right because understanding instructions does not imply
                  doing the experiment.
Choice [a] is the answer if only through elimination of other choices. Also because
                  it implies readiness to take the next step.

Now listen to the sentences. Between sentences there will be pauses. At each pause, read the choices below and select the one containing an inference.

1. a. I’m your P.A.
    b. I’m your boss.
    c. I have a problem—an aching tooth.
    d. It’s my duty to remind you.

2. a. I served the firm sincerely.
    b. I didn’t join the recent strike.
    c. My project brought profit to the company.
    d. My boss liked my project.

3. a. I demanded that salary.
    b. I am taxable.
    c. I earn Rs1,44,000 per year.
    d. I earn Rs. 44 thousand per year.

4. a. We had to order for more food.
    b. The party was a huge success.
    c. Everybody praised us for giving such a large party.
    d. The guest were thrice the number invited.

5. a. I spent a huge sum of money.
    b. I understood that painting was not the only solution.
    c. I painted the house myself and it was a poor job.
    d. I liked the house looking dull.

6. a. I was ready to give you the money.
    b. You weren’t serious about borrowing money.
    c. I refused to give you the money.
    d. I know you badly need the money but I don’t have it.

7. a. Why didn’t you listen to me?
    b. What’s the use of feeling sorry now?
    c. You didn’t listen to me.
    d. You listened to me.

9. a. He cannot be prosecuted because he’s dead.
    b. He was killed in jail.
    c. He cannot give evidence because he’s dead.
    d. His enemies killed him.

10. a. This indicates friendship.
    b. This happens only in a party or large gathering.
    c. This is a greeting used at the time of being introduced by a mutual friend.
    d. This is a greeting between strangers.

11. a. I’ll regret joining this College.
      b. We’ve stayed only for a short time. 
      c. I’ll be sorry we’ll be saying good-bye to each other soon.
      d. I’m eagerly waiting to leave the College.

12. a. The speaker is giving a serious warning.
      b. The speaker is boasting of his physical prowess.
      c. The speaker says he will need one step to hit you.
      d. Don’t take any step. Then you’ll be dead.

Spoken sentences for exercise two are:
1. Remember you’re seeing the dentist tomorrow morning.
2. I received three advance increments.
3. I earn Rs.12000 per month.
4. We’d invited twenty but sixty arrived.
5. The house appeared dull even after painting.
6. If I had the money, I’d give it to you.
7. You should’ve listened to me.
8. He was murdered while he was out on bail.
9. The drunken driver was taken into custody.
10. ‘How d’you do?’  ‘How d’you o?’
11. How time flies! What a time we had! Another month we’ll be out of college.
12. Another step and you are dead.
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise three
You’ve listened to sentences, understood them for their literal and implied meanings. Now you’ll listen to short conversations and see what they mean to you.

Example
Voice : where are the speakers?
Ram   : You aren’t playing well at all. What’s wrong?
Ganesh: I don’t know. I’m just not able to move.

Choices: a. Ram’s place  b. At a cafe  c. a new basketball court   d.at Ganesh’s home.
The answer is ‘c’.

Listen to short conversation and make your choices:

1. a. Mahabalipuram   b. Weekend   c. By bus   d. For a holiday
2. a. Babu is not in his senses.   b. His mother doesn’t like Suresh.
    c. Babu has a test.                  d. Babu wants to go.
3. a. confession    b. denial    c. no from Suman     d. Silence
4. a. He knows there is a strike.  b. He knows nothing about the strike.
    c. His car is in good condition. d. He’s not interested in the strike.
5. a. He’s read the ad.                  b. He wants to buy BPL.
    c. He’s not giving her a cheque. d. He’ll let his wife buy a TV.
6. a. She wants to know if her husband has read the real ad.
    b. She’s interested in buying a TV.
    c. She knows her husband wants a TV.
    d. She wants a cheque written.
7. a. He’s willing to help.            b. He understands that speaker A is a stranger.
    c. He refuses to help speaker A. d. He doesn’t like speaker A.
8. a. He indicates that he doesn’t know his way about.
    b. He just wants to know if B knows the way.
    c. He’s testing speaker B.
    d. He’s teasing speaker B.
9. a. He’s laughing at student B.     b. He appreciates student B.
    c. He is students B’s brother.      d. Student B is doing everything except studying.
10. a. He doesn’t like student A’s observation.
      b. He is sorry student A is not his roommate.
      c. He’s asking whether student A is his roommate.
      d. He is happy student A is not his roommate.

Short conversations for this exercise:
1. Voice: when is Babu going?
    Mother: Did I hear you on the phone planning for the weekend?
    Babu   : Yes, mom. Subash and I are visiting Mahabalipuram.

2. Voice: Why can’t Babu go?
    Mother: Are you in your senses?
    Babu   : Mom!
    Mother: isn’t there a test on Monday?

3. Voice: What does dad want?
    Dad: You went to Ramu’s house?
    Suman: No, dad.
    Dad: say it now, I know you did.

4. voice: What does speaker B say?
   Speaker A: isn’t there an air strike?
  Speaker B : I’m taking my car.

5. voice: What’s the man saying?
    Woman: Did you see this ad? They’re selling BPL at throwaway prices.
    Man     : Shall I write out a cheque?

6. voice: What does the woman want?
    Woman: Did you see this ad? They’re selling BPL at throwaway prices.
    Man     : Shall I write out a cheque?

7. voice : What does speaker B infer?
    Speaker A: Can you tell me how to reach the post office?
    Speaker B: I’m also a stranger here.

8. voice : What does speaker A say?
    Speaker A: Can you tell me how to reach the post office?
    Speaker B: I’m also a stranger here.

9. voice : What does speaker A say?
    Speaker A: You’re hardly studying these days.
    Speaker B: you’re not my roommate, are you now?

10. voice : What does speaker B say?
    Speaker A: You’re hardly studying these days.
    Speaker B: you’re not my roommate, are you now?
___________________________________________________________________________  

Exercise four
Now you’ll listen to very short passages. Listen to the questions first and bear them in mind and make your choices as you listen.

1. a. water pollution   b. boiling is the best process. c. pollution is not serious d. solutions to
                                                                                                                              water pollution
2. a. several      b. some   c. none    d. Five
3. a. There is poor market for used equipment.   b. it’s not cost-effective.
    c. equipment becomes useless assets.
4. a. sewage     b. pollution    c. POPs    d. Organo chlorides.

Short passages for this exercise:
1. What’s the topic of this passage?
Water pollution has become a household issue today, and every housewife wishes to protect her family from the dangers of infected water. She is offered a range of domestic disinfection methods, which range from boiling, chlorination, ozonisation to U-V radiation. Chlorination is done by adding chlorine tablets to the water. But this is recommended only in emergencies, and non-availability of other methods. This is because chlorination has toxic side-effects like formation on by-products like chloroform, carbon-tetrachloride etc. Ozonisation works through the process of oxidation, killing bacteria, viruses and other spores found in the water. Any excess is quickly converted to oxygen. But even this process is claimed to have some side-effects and is a bit expensive. U-V radiation is effective depending on the strength and duration of the dosage.

On the other hand, boiling is a simple process and can be done at a very minimal cost. Drinking water should be boiled for 10-20 minutes, cooled and then filtered in a water filter before use.     
[an extract from ECO news, September-December 1995]

2. How many steps does Dr Raj intend to take?
In the last two decades, nearly 20 species of fish have totally disappeared from the pulicat lake, situated about 60 km north of the City. But according to Dr Raj it is possible to restore the lake’s ecosystem before things get out of hand. He has planned a series of steps. He plans to take up offbottom algai and oyster cultivation. To done on rafts, these cultures will provide food for the birds. He is confident that even the species of fish that have now disappeared would reappear.

The crab species that ar being exported will be bred in captivity so that the eggs that are now being exported can be saved, thereby increasing their population.

The sandbar will be manually dug up by the fishermen in a traditional system known as ‘paadu’ (zone). This would take them a week for which the villages involved in the operation would pay them to compensate for the loss of fishing days. This would reduce salinity levels in the lake.

And as the last stage, mangroves would be reforested.
[an extract from The Hindu 22 January 1977]

3. What’s the principal argument against buying?
The question of whether to lease, rent or buy is very complicated. It depends very much on the tax and cash position of a company. But one thing is clear; our present policy of buying is unwise. Because this type of equipment is constantly improving. It’s necessary to make frequent changes. If you own a copier, you have to sell it. The trouble is that there is a very poor market for used machines. A secondary point is that interbloc is a large company that does not need to build up its assets in this way or have a debt on the balance sheet. At the same time, the advantages of leasing have been overstated. Many companies have regarded leasing as a means to avoid tax. In fact, it only postpones it. The company must face a tax bill in the end. The only way to avoid making payment is for the company to go on leasing at an increasing rate.

4. What has sea become today?
The oceans provide food and transport for most of the world’s people. Their currents affect our climate. Over 60% of the world’s population live within a few miles of the sea. But our oceans are in trouble. Sea pollution—70% of which comes from our activities on land—is reaching disastrous levels.

Sewage is one threat. Most countries use the seas as a dumping ground for raw sewage, which kills marine life, pollutes coastal ecosystems and causes human disease. But the most serious problem is the poisoning of the oceans by long lived artificial toxic chemicals, known as ‘persistent organic pollutant’ or POPs. Some of these linger in the seas for decades. A cocktail of DDT, PCBs, dioxins and thousands of other chemicals is being carried around the world by ocean currents and is ending up in the seafood on our dinner tables.

Artifical pesticides and fertilisers from agriculture flow into the sea from the land and down the rivers. Meanwhile, industries around the world have been using the seas as a giant drain for poisonous chemicals for decades. Now the consequences are beginning to unfold.

In recent years, there has been a stead world wide increase in the number of fish being born deformed. POPs have caused drastic declines in some seabird populations, and some scientists believe that recent ‘mass die-offs’ of dolphins in the polluted Mediterranean, North Sea and the US east coast could be the start of a process which could threaten their very survival.

The effect on humans is equally worrying. Artificial chemicals in the food chain have been linked to dramatic fall in human sperm counts, by as much as 40% in some countries over the last fifty years. Poisonous chlorine has even found in the breast of Inuit women in Artic, who live far from any industry.

Organochloirdes, of which 11000 are estimated to be in use around the world, are believed to weaken the human immune system, and are thought to be responsible for the impaired mental development of babies.

[an extract form Eco News Sept.—Dec. 1995]
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise five
This exercise will help you learn to take notes while listening.

Listen attentively; don’t let you mind wander and miss some key points. Write down important points in words and phrases; you may use you own abbreviations for this notes is meant for you but make sure you know what expressions your abbreviations represent(!).

Passage 1
The country has witnessed over a decade of consumer activism, which turned active and aggressive after the enactment of the Consumer Protection Act of 1986. All of must realise that every Indian citizen, irrespective of age, sex, religion caste or such else, is a consumer with rights.

The forthcoming elections, I fear, is not going to be any different from the past ones. It will once again produce leaders who personal needs will far exceed those of the country. They will use their parties to entrench themselves in power. Where does that leave the Indian consumer, who above 18 years of age is the franchised voter?

Assuming that the Government itself would be spending, on an average, Rs.1.25 crores for each constituency, approximately Rs. 600 crores will be spent on the elections. Add to this an accountable expenditure of Rs. 15 lakhs for each constituency and twice that unofficially and we are looking at a cost of Rs.1000 crores to elect our representatives to govern this country. What do we get in return? Fish markets! (It is indeed amusing to see our honourable members perform in the well of Parliament.)

Do any of these elected representatives really care about the ordinary citizens of the country? Does anyone do anything to reduce the prices of commodities or products? Whenever, due to over-production, prices show a tendency to fall, there is a rush to ‘peg the prices’ so that manufacturers are not affected. What does it mean? What are they trying to tell us, my fellow consumers?

Simply this: “We have been elected by you, but we have to please all the lobbies who supported us to win you over to get elected. But we will definitely think of you, if not immediately, at least just before the next elections.”

In my opinion, if the country is to have a truly honest and efficient democracy, we must ensure the following:
No candidate or political party should be allowed to spend on elections. The State should fund all elections.
Each candidate should be given a fixed number of posters of standard size per thousand voters in the constituency.
Candidates should speak from common platforms constructed by the Election Commission at one or more places in every constituency with adequate space for the crowds. Such a place should not obstruct traffic or cause any other inconvenience to the ordinary citizen.
Companies, industries, and their association should be banned from donating to any political party. They should be asked to pay a fractional percentage of their turnover as election contribution. In addition, ever ID card-holder of voting age should pay a rupee or some election fund cess.
On the economic front, all licensing should be abolished. But strict quality control should be enforced. The Government must ensure development of quality infrastructure at reasonable prices.
In order to tackle unemployment the Government should create jobs by allowing expansion of production and exports.
Once money power is removed from the election arena, the power of Members of Parliament (MP) and Members of Legislative Assembly (MLA) are limited to parliamentary practices—to legislate and protect the country economically and militarily, codes for civilized parliamentary behaviour are laid down and all merchandising powers of elected leaders removed, then we will see persons of character and integrity at the helm of the country’s affairs.
...
Will this remain merely as the Great Indian Dream?
R. Desikan, The author is a former chairman, Federation of consumer organisations, Tamil Nadu.

Passage 2
Hindustan Lever Ltd. Has set a turnover growth target of 18-19 per cent and a net profit growth target of 25-26 per cent for 1998, Mr K B Dadseth, the Chairman said.

He said this target had been set without considering the merger of Pond’s (India) Ltd. With HLL and the acquiring of the 50 per cent stake in Lakme Ltd.

“We hope to double out turnover every four years and double our net profit every three years,” Mr Dadiseth said. The company’s challenges in the current year are to consolidate its food business and to buck the recessionary trends, he said.

“Our strength has been to understand Indian consumers and we will continue to significantly invest in understanding them,’ he said.

Queried on the economic reforms programme in the context of parliamentary elections, Mr Dadiseth said the new Government, whatever its political hue, would continue to press ahead with liberalisation to a large extent “though with minor deviations”.

“Today the political reality recognises the fact that ultimately you cannot be on an island,” he said. ___________________________________________________________________________   

Exercise six
Listen to the dialogue and answer the questions.

1. What’s the conversation about?
    a. the dead phone    b. replacing the dead phone   c. the father and the mother
    d. buying medicine

2. say true or false:
    a. The nature of the repair is not stated.  b. Sunil is a friend.  c. Mom is not at home.

The conversation for this exercise:
Read this dialogue to students.

Son                       : Dad! The phone is dead.
Father                   : Why don’t you ring up the telephone department?
(absent-mindedly)
Son                        : Oh, Dad! I said the phone isn’t working.
Father                    : oh, did you now? I’m sorry, son.
                                 What do we do now?
Son                        : I’ll ring from Sunil’s house.
Father                    : ...
Son                        : Dad!
Father                    : Whose phone did you say?
Son                        : Sunil’s.
Father                    : Who will you contact?
Son                        : Mr Sundaram.
Father                    : Who is he?
Son                        : He’s the one who attends to complaints.
Father                    : I see. Alright. Tell mom I want coffee.
Son                        : She isn’t here.
Father                    : Where has she gone?
Son                        : To the chemist’s.
Father                    : What for?
Son                        : To buy medicine.
Father                    : For whom?
Son                        : For you, dad!               
________________________________________________________________________

Exercise seven
Listen to the passage entitled Forest? What Forest?
Background information
Forests are one essential part of our environment. They are the home of tribals. Wildlife and plant life are part of forests. The Central Government of India has declared several forests as protected areas. Environmentalists are those who fight against those who exploit environment for personal gain.

Learn these words before you listen to the passage:
     Tribals, protected, denotification, land grab, blatantly, shrank, strike down, ram, perturbed,
     duplicity, assent, assault, conspire, diktat (a Hindi term meaning ‘stipulation’ or ‘order’), fell trees,
      wildlife, warden, open game, no letup, fallout, icons, extermination

Read these questions before you listen to the passage. If necessary, you may listen twice.
1. Environmentalists see denotification as ____________________ landgrab
2. Forest land is owned and administered by ________________ state governments
3. In the name of modernisation, forests are being denotified. Modernisation refers to four
    things; they are __________        __________                 __________      _____________
      (You’ll hear them towards the end)  dams, industries, railroads, highways
4. The passage gives you a chance to think about what’s happening around us. Do you agree
    with the writer of the passage? Share your arguments with your class.

The passage for this exercise:
Read the  background information in the coursebook and then this listening passage to students:

Forest? What forest?
Denotification: It’s the legal term for undoing a protected area and opening it up for development. Environmentalists simply look at it as a land grab—often that’s exactly what happens. A protected area can be opened to development only after approval from the state legislature. But ever since the tree-market economy of the ‘90s, state governments ignore the law to favour industries.

Last year, the Maharashtra Government shrank the Kalsubai—Harishchandragadh Sanctuary to find a place for a pumping station and reservoir. The Government told the local collector there was no need to refer the denotification to the state legislature. No one’s challenged the illegal order yet.

In 1995, the Gujarat Government wiped out 322 sq. Km. of the Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary to find a place for a cement plant belonging to the Sanghi group of industries. When the Supreme Court struck down the denotification as illegal, the government used its majority in the State Assembly to ram the denotification through. The Himachal Pradesh Government went one better. It simply wiped an entire sanctuary (all 6.2 sq.km. of Dalaghat) off the map to accommodate a cement plant.

Perturbed by such duplicity, the Supreme Court finally said last year that the state legislature’s assent wasn’t enough. Every denotification now has to be cleared by the Indian Board of Wildlife, an advisory body of experts, forest officials and NGOs. “The message is that our state governments (who own and administer forest land) just cannot be trusted,” says Bittu Sahgal, member of the Board and editor of Sanctuary magazine. States get away with this assault on the forests because many forest officials either conspire with the companies or follow the diktat of local politicians. There is no other conclusion possible when you examine documentation required to release forest land:
·         In the Panna Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, the operation of white sandstone mines  was described as ‘removal of materials”.
·         In building an irrigation project near the Sitanadi Sanctuary (tiger habitat and last refuge of the central Indian wild buffalo) in Madhya Pradesh, the State Government flatly denied that the protected area was being used; a site visit revealed that 30 sq. km. of the land sought was part of the sanctuary.
After approving the felling of 40,000 trees for a dam and nuclear plant in the tropical forests of Karwar, Karnataka, the chief wildlife warden, when asked if the area had significant wildlife, had this to say: “No, but tiger, panther, Malabar squirrel are present in the area.”

Protected areas are monitored by the Central Government; state forests are often open game, The Centre, especially in this of federalism, cannot keep track of every violation of the Forest(Conservation)Act, and so the forests recede.

There will be no letup in grand visions, like the 191-km steamer route to Bangladesh planned through the mangrove forests of Sunderbans. The 0.6 million cubic metres of mud dredged each year will be piled on the forests alongside. The project’s own environment impact assessment warns of extensive ecological and health fallout. The MOEF is now examining 121 proposals for dams, industries, railroads and highways through forests and protected areas. Unless they are carefully examined and controlled, many Indian wildlife icons face termination. ___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise eight
Learn these words before listening: suppress, redeem, reformer, upliftment, pioneer, initially,
                                                                           resistance, abolition, crusade, enactment, delegation,
                                                                           stipulate, urge

1. ___________________________ and __________________________ were the two  
    British ladies who helped in the upliftment of women.
2. _______________________ was now the minimum age for a girl to be married.
3. The education and training of girls ‘flew in the face of tradition.’ What does this
    ‘tradition’ refer to?

  Read this to class
That women continued to be suppressed is clearly indicated by the attempts of several individuals and the British government through their efforts to redeem the status of women.

Several reformers like Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Jyotirao Phule  fought for the upliftment of women. British ladies also played a part in this effort.  Martha Mault (Mead) and her daughter Eliza Caldwell (Mault) pioneered the education and training of girls in south India which of course was met initially with local resistance, as it flew in the face of tradition. Raja Rammohan Roy's efforts led to the abolition of the Sati practice under Governor-General William Cavendish-Bentinck in 1829. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar's crusade was successful with the enactment of Widow Remarriage Act of 1856. Pandita Ramabai and several other women reformers helped the cause of women’s upliftment.

In 1917, the first women’s delegation met the Secretary of State to demand women’s political rights, supported by the Indian National Congress. The All  India Women’s Education Conference was held in Pune in 1927. In 1929, the Child Marriage Restraint  Act was passed, stipulating fourteen as the minimum age for a girl to be married, through the efforts of Mahomed Ali Jinnah. Mahatma Gandhi urged people to disallow child marriages and called upon young men to marry child widows.
____________________________________________________________________       

Exercise nine
Learn these words before listening to the passage:
emerge, nicknamed, renowned, dribbling, hat-trick, eel, compact, physique, sprint, melee, contain, feat, endear, tribute, spectacular, coyly, evasive

2. What does ‘cannot but’ mean?
3. say true or false:
    i. Pele’s father was a goalkeeper.
   ii. Santos is the name of the national team.
  iii. Maradona scored the goal in the finals against Germany.
  iv. Maradona denied that he had scored with his hand.
4. Explain ‘he was the youngest ever to play in the World Cup’.
5. Explain ‘unpenalized handball’.
6. What did Maradona mean by ‘Hand of God’?

Listening passage for this exercise:
Pelé and Maradona—the two greats

Think of football, you cannot but think of Pelé.  Think of football, you cannot but think of Maradona. Two great players of all time since football emerged as an international game.
Pelé’s real name is Edison Arantes do Nascimento. He is the son of a professional football player nicknamed ‘Dido’, and got his nickname ‘Pele’, a mispronounced version of ‘Bile’ which was the name of a goalkeeper friend of his father. He began playing for Santos at the age of 15 and his national team at the age of 16, and won his first World Cup at the age of 17. Though he had several offers from European clubs, he chose to continue to play for Santos.

Pelé played as an inside forward, striker, and what later became known as the playmaker position. His technique and natural athleticism have been universally praised, and during his playing years he was renowned for his excellent dribbling and passing, pace, powerful shots, exceptional heading ability, and prolific goal-scoring. In all, he scored 1,285 goals in 1,321official matches. He played as a member and as a captain and won three World Cups for Brazil in 1958, 1962 and 1970. As a member of the Brazilian team for the 1958 World Cup team, he was the youngest ever to play in the World Cup. He is the only footballer to be part of three World Cup-winning squads. At his first World Cup match in 1958, he scored a hat-trick in the semifinal against France, thus becoming the youngest one to do so. He had scored 12 goals in his 14 World Cup ties.

Pelé was Brazilian and Maradona, Argentine.

Byron Butler of BBC Radio said this of Maradona:
            Maradona, turns like a little eel, he comes away from trouble,
            little squat man... comes inside Butcher and leaves him for dead,
            outside Fenwick and leaves him for dead, and puts the ball away...
            and that is why Maradona is the greatest player in the world.

Maradona had a compact physique and could withstand physical pressure well. His strong legs and low center of gravity helped him admirably in his short sprints. He was a strategist, a team player, as well as highly technical with the ball. He could weave himself effectively however limited space he was allowed by his opponents and could quickly dash out of the melee (as in the second 1986 goal against England), or give an assist to a free teammate. Being short, but strong, he could hold the ball long enough with a defender chasing him to wait for a teammate making a run or to find a gap for a quick shot. One of his trademark moves was dribbling at full-speed on the left wing, and on reaching the opponent's goal line, delivering accurate passes to his teammates. Another trademark of his was the Rabona, a reverse-cross pass shot behind the leg.
                                 
He played in four consecutive FIFA World Cup tournaments, leading Argentina to victory in 1986 and to second place in 1990. In the 1986 World Cup, he captained Argentina and led them to victory over West Germany in the final and won the Golden Ball award as the tournament's best player. The Germans did their best to contain him by double-marking, but he found the space to give the final pass to Jorge Burruchaga for the winning goal. Beating West Germany 3–2 in front of 115,000 spectators at the Azteca Stadium, Maradona lifted the World Cup trophy. Such a feat endeared him to football lovers and others and is remembered as one of the greatest players in football history. In a tribute to him, the Azteca Stadium authorities built a statue of him for scoring the ‘goal of the century’ and placed it at the entrance of the stadium.

The ‘goal of the century’ refers to the second goal he scored against England in the quarterfinals. It was a spectacular 60-metre weaving through six England players, including the goalkeeper: Maradona received the ball, swivelled around and dribbled—all in one motion. This second goal was later voted by FIFA as the greatest goal in the history of the World Cup. Earlier in the match, his first goal was an unpenalized handball. Replays showed that he had struck the ball with his hand. When asked about it, Maradona was coyly evasive, describing it as ‘a little with the head of Maradona and a little with the hand of God’. It became known as the ‘Hand of God’ or ‘la mano de Dios.’ 

He finished first in an internet vote for the FIFA Player of the Century award, and shared the award with Pelé.
___________________________________________________________________________

Exercise ten
Learn these words before listening to the passage:
out of gear, flash floods, divert, water-logging, grim, rivulets, a grinding halt, remain paralysed, be stranded, bear the  brunt of, marooned

2. What did the heavy rains in Andhra result in?
3. ‘Boats were pressed into service in the city on Saturday to rescue people from marooned
     areas.’
    ‘Although the rains receded since Saturday night, hundreds of houses remained under
     water.’
    Form similar sentences of your own.

Passage for this exercise:
New Delhi: Heavy rains have thrown life out of gear in Pune, many parts of the Konkan region and Andhra Pradesh.

The Pune-Mumbai intercity trains have been cancelled and many trains, including the Mumbai-Banglore Udyan Express and the Mumbai-Nagarcoil Express have been diverted.
Heavy water-logging has been reported from Chiplun, Rajapur, Khed and Mahad with some villages in one-two feet water. All the trains towards Pune have been stopped near Karjat and at least 70 villages have been cut off. Kolhapur itself has recorded 1,266 mm rain overnight.
Meanwhile, the flood situation in Andhra Pradesh continued to be grim on Sunday with continuous rains claiming as many as 53 lives over the past five days. Weather officials have predicted more showers.

Heavy rains and flash floods since Tuesday caused widespread devastation in Hyderabad and eight other districts in coastal Andhra and the Telangana region. Around 40 people have died since Friday and hundreds have been rendered homeless.
More than 50 residential colonies in Hyderabad and dozens of villages in the eight districts remain under water as several rivulets and water tanks were either overflowing or have breached.

Normal life came to a grinding halt in the affected districts. With some roads under water, vehicular traffic between major towns remained paralysed. Hundreds of vehicles were stranded on the Hyderabad-Vijayawada and the Bhadrachalam-Vijayawada roads.

The Visakhapatnam Cyclone Warning Centre said that heavy rains were likely in north coastal Andhra and Telangana. The low pressure area over Bay of Bengal turned into a well marked depression and lay centred close to the Orissa coast.

Some places are likely to receive more than 25 cm of rainfall. During the last two days, places like Hyderabad received over 15 cm rainfall.

Authorities have warned people living in low-lying areas to move to safer places while fishermen were advised not to venture out to the sea.

Officials have termed the situation "quite serious" after the Kapra dam in Guntur district breached, threatening low-lying areas.

The water level in Vamsadhara and Nagavali rivers in Srikakulam district in north coastal Andhra has been rising alarmingly due to heavy inflows from neighbouring Orissa.
The floods have damaged several houses and crops over thousands of acres. Minister for Revenue and Relief Dharmana Prasad Rao said that assessing the losses incurred would take time as the rains were still continuing.

Hyderabad bore the brunt of the natural calamity with 14 people losing their lives, mostly in house collapses. As many as 52 residential areas in and around the state capital were inundated as 20 tanks and several major storm water drains overflowed.
Boats were pressed into service in the city on Saturday to rescue people from marooned areas.

Although the rains receded since Saturday night, hundreds of houses remained under water. The water level in the Hussain Sagar in the heart of the city rose alarmingly due to heavy inflows.
The level in the 400-year-old old lake, which has a capacity of up to 515 feet, has crossed 513
feet.

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Key to exercise one—ten

Exercise one
Key: 1. C  2. A  3. A  4. B  5. C  6. C 7. D  8. A  9. C  10. D
Exercise two
Key: 1. C  2. C  3. B  4. A  5. B  6. D  7. B  8. A  9. C  10. C 11. C  12. A 
Exercise three
Key: 1. A   2. C  3. A   4. A   5. d  6. B  7. B  8. A  9. D  10. A
Exercise four
1. Key: d    2. Key: d     3. Key: b     4. Key: a
Exercise five
Key: Compare your notes with your neighbours. Read them to class. Show them to your teacher. And you’ll know how good a listener you have been.
 Exercise six
Key: 1. A  2. T,t, t
Exercise seven
Key:
1. landgrab  2. state governments  3. dams, industries, railroads, highways
4. students support their opinions with convincing arguments
Exercise eight
key
1. Martha Mault (Mead) and her daughter Eliza Caldwell (Mault)
2.fourteen
3. It refers to the suppression of women and their forced dependence on men that was
    supposedly started by Manu centuries ago.
Exercise nine
key
2. cannot avoid   3. F, F, F, F   4. No one who played before him was as young as he was.
5. If a player except the goalkeeper touches or plays with his hand, it’s considered a foul
    and he would be penalized for it by the referee. But in Maradonna’s case it didn’t
    happen. 6. destined to win  
Exercise ten
1. Loss of lives, hundreds rendered homeless, water-logging in residential areas, road
    transport paralysed, evacuation, heavy damage of crops and houses
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